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Ezobulungiswa: Uma uheshe uqaphe amatshwele ngubani oqaphe uheshe?
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Ezobulungiswa: Uma uheshe uqaphe amatshwele ngubani oqaphe uheshe?

nguMfo waKwaNomajalimane

Selokhu kwathi nhlo bekuhlale kukhona isithombe esithi lapha eNingizimu Afrika kukhona uhlaka olungenasici. Lolu hlaka ngezobulungiswa ohlangothini lwezinkantolo nabehluleli. Ubuso balolu hlaka bekuyiNkantolo YoMthethosisekelo. Kulolu daba kufanele wonke umuntu ube nesifiso sokuba lesi sithombe singaguquki. Kubo bonke abakuleli abeseka isimiso sedemokhrasi bebehlale njalo besibona isidingo sokwehlukanisa ipolitiki yansukuzonke yamaqembu kanye nezinkantolo.

Lapha izinkantolo bezibukwa njengomalamulela, ihawu lawo wonke umuntu nonobhadula ovikela isithunzi sezwe. Ngokwesimiso sezwe ukusebenza kwezobulungiswa eNingizimu Afrika kubekwe ezinkantolo, ezizimele eziphendula kuphela eNkantolo YoMthethosisekelo nasemthethweni. Akukho muntu noma umzimba wombuso ongangenelela ekusebenzeni kwezinkantolo futhi umyalelo noma isinqumo senkantolo kubophezela yonke imizimba yombuso nakubantu okusebenza kubona.

Ekhuluma neCape Law Society emasontweni ambalwa edlule ngaphambi kokuthi ashone, owayemguMehluleli Omkhulu waseNinginzimu Afrika, u-Arthur Chaskalson, wathi: “Ukuzimela kwezobulungiswa kuyisidingo esifunwa nguMthethosisekelo, hhayi ngentando yomuntu okwezobulungiswa, kodwa ngokwentshisekelo yomphakathi, ngaphandle kwalokho ukuvikeleka kwabehluleli yinto engekho, noma okubukwa ngumphakathi ukuthi bakwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yabo ngaphandle kokwesaba noma kokwenzelela.

Ngokomqondomsuka, ukuzimela kwezobulungiswa kuchazwe ngezindlela ezahlukene. Usinga oluthunga kuzo zonke izincazelo wukuthi ezobulungiswa busemazingeni amabili okokuqala okusezingeni lomuntu – amandla omehluleli okusebenzisa umqondo ngokungachemi nangokuzimela odabeni ngaphandle kwemingenelelo, okwesibili okusezingeni lesakhiwo – amandla obulungiswa ukulawula ukuphathwa nokuqokwa kwezisebenzi zezinkantolo.

Ngeshwa lesi sithombe nokuthenjwa kwezinkantolo kuguqukile futhi kubukeka kusazoba njalo isikhathi eside. Abantu baseNingizimu Afrika namuhla kabasayi nganxanye uma kufikwa ekuthembeni izinkantolo noma abehluleli abathile. Kuyehluka ukwahlulela ekutheni kungani izwe selizithola lilapha likhona, endaweni lapho sekukhona ukungabaza ngohlaka olumqoka njengeNkantolo YoMthethosisekelo. Abanye bathi empeleni indaba ikuwo uMthethosisekelo wezwe notuswa kakhulu yilaba abawesekayo njengenqabakutholwa. Abagxeki boMthethosisekelo bathi ubukhali nganxanye, uvikela konke okukhonjwa kubelungu kepha bese uba ngokunye uma kuthinta aboHlanga ngqo. Isibonelo lapha kuba wudaba lomhlaba okuthiwa nguMthethosisekelo ongacacisi.

Kukhona abathi amanzi adungwa ngosopolitiki abathathe izindaba zabo nezimpi zabo bayoziphosa ezinkantolo nokwenze zanindeka. Isibonelo lapha wumbango wamalungu eqembu elibusayo i-African National Congress (ANC) nowagcina usungena ezinkantolo sekuyizo ezilamula imibango yangaphakathi emaqenjini. Kukhona nombango owabe uthinta umufi uNkk uZanele Magwaza ne-Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) nalowo owawuthinta leli qembu kanye nowayelilungu lalo eSishayamthetho uSolwazi uJabulani Maphalala. Wawukhona nombango wezikhundla phakathi kukaMfundisi uHawu Mbatha noDkt uZiba Jiyane beNADECO owangcina enkantolo. Kusuka lapho izinkantolo nabehluleli basolwa nxazonke ngalokhu abagxeki abakubuka ngokuchema.

Ipolitiki yokuqokwa kwabehluleli
INgingizimu Afrika ngokomlando yabe ilandela inqubo ethile uma kuqokwa abehluleli. Ngesikhathi sikaHulumeni wobandlululo ongumehluleli wabe eqokwa ohlwini lwabehluleli abanamava. Inqubo yayithi uMehluleli Omkhulu wenkantolo thizeni uzihlolile izidingo zaleyo ngxenye, wahlonza nofanelekile futhi wenza izincomo kuNgqongqoshe Wezobulungiswa naye ungqongqoshe wazivuma izincomo zadluliselwa kuMehluleli Omkhulu ukuba avumelane. Nokho, lesi simo sesiguquke kakhulu. Inqubo elandelwayo ekuqokweni kwabehluleli sekuhlonzwa nguMthethosisekelo.

Lezi zinguquko yize zikuMthethosisekelo ziyasolwa ngokuthi yizo kanye “esezidicilele” phansi isithunzi nokwethenjwa kwenqubo yokuqoka abehluleli ezinkantolo ngisho nakuyo iNkantolo YoMthethosisekelo imbala. Uhlelo lokuqokwa selweluswa wuhlaka oluhlanganisa namaqembu epolitiki ngaphansi kweKhomishini Yophiko Lwezobulungiswa iJudicial Service Commission (JSC). IJSC yakhiwa ngokweSigaba 178 soMthethosisekelo kanye noMthetho weJSC.

IJSC yakheke kanje: uMehluleli Omkhulu, uMengameli weNkantolo Enkulu Yokudluliswa Kwamacala (SCA), umehluleli oyedwa okhethwa omengameli behluleli, uNgqongqoshe Wezobulungiswa noma oyedwa okhethwe base beqokwa nguMengameli, abameli ababili nguNgqongqoshe, abameli ababili basezinkatolo zabehluleli abakhethwe yibo abameli babehluleli abakhethwe kubo abameli base beqokwa ngumengameli, ofundisa ezomthetho okhethwa ngothisha bezomthetho emanyuvesi aseNingizimu Afrika, amalungu ayisithupha ePhalamende Likazwelonke akhethwe yilona (okungenani nabo babe ngabamaqembu aphikisayo amelelekile ePhalamende Likazwelonke), izithunywa ezine zoMkhandlu Wezifundazwe ezikhethwe ngokubambisana noMkhandlu lapho izifundazwe eziyisithupa zizivumela (izithunywa) kanye nabane abakhethwa umengameli njengenhloko yesigungu esiphezulu sikazwelonke.

Lokhu kwavunywa emveni kokuba kudingidwe nabo bonke abaholi bawo wonke amaqembu ePhalamende Likazwelonke. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uma kubhekwa amacala aqondene ngqo neNkantolo Enkulu, iKhomishini ihlanganyela noMengameli waBehluleli waleyo nkantolo kanye noNdunankulu wesifundazwe leso.

Kulezi zinsuku injolozela ikuJSC njengoba kulindeleke ukuba yenze uhlolokhono ngaloyo ozothatha izihlangu zikaMehluleli uMogoeng kanye nalabo abazovala izikhala zabehluleli asebethatha umhlalaphansi. Njengoba kuhlale kwenzeka, emuva nje kancane kokukhishwa kohlu lwalabo okumele kuqokwe kubo ibe isisuka inkulumompikiswano.

UMengameli umemezele uhlu lwabayisi-8, okungu: UMengameli waBehluleli uJohn Hlophe, uMehluleli uMbuyiseli Madlanga, uMehluleli uMandisa Maya, uDkt uWallace Amos Mgoqi (osehoxisile) u-Adv uBusisiwe Mkhwebane, uMengameli waBehluleli uDunstan Mlambo, u-Adv u-Alan Nelson, SC noMehlulei uRaymond Zondo.

Le nkulumo mpikiswano igxile kakhulu ekufakweni kwegama likaMehluleli uJohn Hlophe nogama lakhe lesekwa phakathi kwabanye yiBlack Lawyers Association (BLA). Okudala inkulumompikiswano wudaba lwabehluleli besifazane. Muva nje kuvuke izinkulumo ezindala. Echaza eminyakeni eyedlule uMehluleli uKriegler esethulweni sakhe esisihloko esithi: “Can Judicial Independence Survive Transformation? wathi uma echaza ngalokho okuhlalele iJSC:
“UMthethosisekelo ulawula iJSC kuSigaba 174(1) ukuba iqoke abantu abafanele nabanolwazi.

Okuwumbandela ngqangi lokho. Kuyisidingo esigunyazayo. Bese kuthi isigatshana (2), esengeza lapho, sithi: ukwenza kanjalo, kuhlonipha ukulinganiseka ngokobuhlanga nangokobulili kubehluleli. Futhi kungokwezizathu ezisobala ukuthi uMthethosisekelo, ngesikhathi ukhuluma umbandela woguquko esigatshaneni (2), sifuna isigatshana (1) njengesidingo esiyisisekelo nesinqala sokuthi abaqashwayo bagogode ngokufanelekile. Manje lezi zinqala zombili ekhona ngokwesidingo nekhona ngokuzikhethela, seziguqule amakhanda abo,” kubeka uMehluleli uKriegler.

Nokho lo mbono kaKriegler uchithwa nguMmeli waseNkantolo Enkulu, uLunga Siyo owayeyiCounsel, kuConstitutional Litigation Unit, kwaLegal Resources Centre, eyiLungu Labehluleli BaseJohannesburg nowayeyiSekela loMphathi neNhloko yeCollege of Law and Management Studies, e-University of KwaZulu-Natal, UJC Mubangizi esethulweni sabo esisihloko sithi: The independence of South African Judges: A Constitutional and Legislative Perspective”, bahlaba uKriegler ngelithi: “Kuyacaca lesi sitatimende sikaMehluleli uKriegler sasivuna isihumusho esithi iSigaba 174(2) yinto nje ekukhombisa ukuthi ungenzani, hhayi isidingongqangi sokuqahwa. Isihumusho sikaMehluleli uKriegler siyantula.

AboHlanga nabesifazane babekhishwe inyumbazana, ngakhoke iSigaba 174(2) singeke safundwa sodwa singalunjaniswa neSigaba 9(2) soMthethosisekelo kanye noMthetho Wezobulungiswa KweZokusebenza, okuzama ukubhekana nokungalingani kwesikhathi esedlule ngokusebenzisa izindlela zikasenzangakhona.

See Also

“Ngakho-ke iSigaba 174(2) sibandakanya inqubo enqala yokulingana engachazwa ngokuthi ukulingana komphumela njengoba idinga ukuba kubhekwe izimo zenhlalo nezomnotho njengoba zinjalo kubantu abehlukene ukuze uthole ukuthi uMthethosisekelo uzimisele ngani ngokulingana. INkantolo YoMthethosisekelo ichaze ukuthi ukulingana okunqala kusho ukuthini. Lokhu kulingana okunqala kubheka ukuthi ngaphandle kokungalingani kwezinhlanga, kokuphila nokobulili emphakathini wethu, kukhona amanye amazinga nezinye izindlela zokungefani emphakathini nokuncishwa amathuba okuhleliwe okusaqhubeka kumanje. UMthethosisekelo uyasihlanganisa ukuba sikuhlakaze konke lokhu futhi singavumeli ukwakheka kokunye ukucindezeleka,” kusho ababhali.

Okusobala kuwo wonke umuntu
Ingcindezi ebhekene nabazoqoka kayiqali njengoba kwakunjalo mhla kumele kuqokwe ozothatha izihlangu zikaMehluleli uNgcobo nokwagcina kunguMehluleli uMogoeng. Nakulokhu kubuka ozoqokwa engeke alubalekele udaba lobulili, ubuhlanga nepolitiki yamaqembu.

Ngeshwa akekho omsulwa njengoba nakubo abezindaba obekumele ngabe banikeza umphakathi zonke izinhlangothi sekusobala ukuthi sebenemizwa ngabathile.

Lokhu kubonakala ngendlela okubhalwa ngayo nokuvezwa ngayo abanye abasohlwini lwaba yisi-8. Okunye okungebalekelwe wukuthi ngeke umlungu okwamanje abe nguMehluleli Omkhulu eNkantolo YoMthehthosisekelo nokuzovusa izinkulumo, kusobala futhi ukuthi owesifazane naye kusazoba nzima. Olunye udaba okubuka luzobhekwa wukuthi lo ozoqokwa uzoma yini ezimisweni zoMthethosisekelo abanye abathi wenzelela abelungu. Kuloyo ofuna ukuwuguqula akubukeki engamukeleka okwamanje ngakho kungahle kube yiphupho ukuthi kungaqokwa ozonyakazisa izinsika zesimiso esikhona.

Abanye bathi uHlophe yilokhu okuzomenza angasinuki isikhundla lesi ngaphandle kwezinsolo ade emataniswa nazo.

Zikhona ke izintandokazi kwabanye. Enye yazo uMehluleli uMlambo osedume kakhulu ngokugoba uhulumeni ngezinqumo zakhe. Yize amava akhe engangabazisi njengoHlophe kepha bakhona asebembuka njengehawu lobulungu. Kanti noMehluleli uZondo ukhona nosekuvele kuqalile ukukhuluma okuthi uma eke waqokwa kuyobe kusho ukuthi uyabongwa ngomsebenzi wakhe weKhomishini abanye abathi yabe iwumgoga wokukheqa abanye.

Okuzodonsa amehlo ukuthi kuzothi kuhlolwa ikhono likaZondo abe ekhipha umbiko weKhomishini ebiphenya ngezinsolo zokugwamandwa kwamandla ombuso ayinhloko yayo uMthiyane.

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