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I-AU ayiguquki kolwaseChagos Island

nguSenzo Ngubane

Uyaziphuphela osazitshela ukuthi ingalo yomthetho kanye nomthetho uqobo kuneqhaza kwezamazwe omhlaba ukwedlula ipolitiki nokuthi yiliphi izwe eliyisikhondlakhondla. Iqiniso ngelithi kumazwe omhlaba eyomthetho iyiwisa elisetshenziswa ngabanamandla ukuphohloza izifi so nezinhloso zamazwe athathwa njengasafufusa. Leli qiniso livame ukubonakala ngendlela inkantolo efana ne-International Criminal Court (ICC) esebenza ngayo ngoba ikhombisa ukuchema ngokuthi igadle ngokungafani futhi okungalingani emazweni ehlukene. I-ICC iqinisa isandla ezimweni ezibhekene namazwe ase-Afrika, kepha ithande ukuthamba kulezo ezifaka amazwe aseNyakatho.

Ukungahloniswa kwezomthemtho kuphinde kubonakale kakhulu nxa kuneziphakamiso eziqhamuka kwenye yezinkantolo i-International Court of Justice (ICJ) ezingavuni amazwe aseNyakatho. Lokunganakwa kwemithetho okuthiwa ilawula ubudlelwano phakathi kwamazwe ehlukene, kusabonakala odabeni olufaka amazwe amabili iMauritius kanye ne- United Kingdom (UK). Nyakenye kulo leli laboHlanga, sike sahlaziya ngesiphakamiso se-ICJ mayelana nokuqhubeka kwe- UK ukuphatha isiqhingi esise-Afrika iChagos, kodwa ebizwa ngeBritish Indian Ocean Territory ngamaNgisi. Uma siyibuyekeza, i-ICJ yathi lesi siqhingi siyingxenye yeMauritius ngakho kungumbono wayo ukuthi i-UK kumele iphume iphele kuleli lizwe.

Yize iNkantolo yavuna elaseMauritius, i-UK yashaya phansi ngonyawo yathi ngeke ikubone kwenzeka lokho iMauritius. Okwaxaka nyakenye, nokusaxaka namuhla ngukuthi i-UK ingelinye lamazwe ahlale efaka ingcindezi kwamanye ukuthi awathobele izinkundla ezimisiwe zomthetho ukuze kube nobudlelwano obakhayo emhlabeni jikelele. Lolu daba alumanga ngokwesiphakamiso se-ICJ, lwaqhubekela ku-United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), nokungenye yezinhlaka ze-UN lapho wonke amazwe omhlaba enezwi elilinganayo, hhayi njengakuSecurity Council (SC). Nyakenye i-UNGA nayo yangenelela kolwaseChagos Island. Yeseka isiphakamiso se-ICJ sokuthi impela kumele i-UK ibuyisele lomhlaba kubanikazi. Ayimanga lapho, yaqhubeka i-UNGA yanqumela i-UK ugwayi katiki ngokuthi kumele zingapheli izinyanga eziyisi-6 isathatha iChagos Island njengeyayo.

Lesi sikhathi esasimiswe yi-UNGA safi ka sedlula mhla wama-22 ngoLwezi nyakenye, ingazange i-UK ikhombise nakancane ukuzimisela ukuhoxa eChagos Island. AmaNgisi avamile ukuzenza izwe elizihloniphayo izinhlaka ze-UN yingakho ingaphezi ngokuhlala iphakamisa ukubaluleka kwazo, kepha uma imikhonto icija ibheka ngakuyo ijika ikhulume okunye. Loku kuqinisa ikhanda okwenziwa yi-UK kuphoqe i-African Union (AU) eNgqungqutheleni ebibanjwe ngoNhlolanja ibeke elayo ngokuza nesinqumo sokweseka iMauritius kulolu daba. Lesi sinqumo seNgqungquthela sinxuse iKhomishini ye-AU ukuba yenze ngakho konke ukweseka iMuaritius kulolu daba, yaphinde yathi kuzomele iKhomishini ize nombiko ekuqaleni kwezi-2021 ngohambo esiluhambile.

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INqgunqgthela iphinde yagqugquzela wonke amazwe ase-Afrika aluphathe angaphezi olwaseChagos Island aphinde aluphakamise emihlanganweni ye-UNGA nonyaka. Okuxakaya ukuthi lolu daba aluvamile ukuba sematheni noma ezithebeni zabamaphephandaba, kungaba angaphakathi ezwenikazi noma kwamanye. Lokhu kuyaxaka ngoba udaba olunjengalolu olufaka ezomthetho wezomhlaba nokudlobongela kwamazwe athize, njenge-UK kuvame ukuthi chithisaka kwezamaphepha nezokuxhumana. Okuphinde kuxake wukuthi lezi zinkulungwane ezikhona zezinhlangano okuthiwa zizimele (NGOs) nezivame ukukhuluma uma kukhona udaba olukhombisa ukungahlonishwa kwezinqumo zezinkantolo ezifana ne- ICC kanye ne-ICJ, neziphinde zizigqaje ngokuthi zeseka imizamo yokuvikela amalungelo abantu, zithule du kolwaseChagos Island.

Noma ngabe kungelona udaba olusabalele kwezamaphephandaba lokho akusho ukuthi lezi zinqumo ze- ICJ kanye ne-UNGA azikho mqoka, futhi akuchazi ukuthi lolu lwaseChagos Island alubalulekile. Eyaseqhatha nezifi ki ezibuya emazweni afana ne-UK ngeyokugwamanda umhlaba okungewona owabo. Esaqhubeka nokudala amazinyo abushelelezi kubudlelwano phakathi kwe- Afrika nawaseNyakatho, eyokusebenzisa imithetho okuthiwa ikhona emhlabeni ngendlela evuna bona. Esavusa uhlevane ebudlelwaneni obukhona izigameko ezithize ezikhombisa nanamuhla amazwe amaningi aseNyakatho asasibona njengezinto zokuphathwa nokubuswa ngabanye. Yikho udaba lwaseChagos Island lubalulekile. Ukwesekwa kweMauritius kumele kuthathwe njengengxenye yomzabalazo wangaphambili wokukhulula wonke amazwe nomhlaba wama-Afrika Abaseka i-UK kulolu daba, nayo ngokunjalo, bami ekutheni akumele isidedele lesi siqhingi ngoba sibalulekile kwezokuphepha emhlabeni ngoba siyisizinda senkambu yamasotsha nezempi zase-United States of America (USA) nakwamanye amazwe.

Bathi le nkambu ingebalulekile ku-UK naku- USA emagalelweni ayo ekuvikeleni nasekulweni nobulelesi esifundazweni sase-Afrika esisogwini oluseMpumalanga. Iphinde isebenze ukuvikela amazwe athize ezigamekweni zokuhlaselwa nokuhlukunyezwa ngabavukelizikhundla abasabalele emazweni akulesi sifundazwe sase-Afrika kanye nawaseMiddle East. Kepha akusona isizathu esizwakalayo lesi ngoba emveni kwesinqumo se-ICJ, iMauritius yakuveza ukuthi angeke iyiphazamise i-UK ezinhlelweni zezokuphepha, yadalula nokuzimisela kwayo ukuthi kofakwanwa imilomo emveni kokuba leli lizwe selibuyelele kubanini balo. Ukungashaya indiva kwe-UK lokuzehlisa kuMauritius, noma ngabe bekungafanele ngoba umthetho uyayivuna, kukhombisa ukuthi akuyona kuphela eyenkambu ebalulekile kepha okuhamba phambili ukuqhubeka nokuthathwa njengamanye amazwe aseyizikhondlakhondla emhlabeni. Ucacile umlando ngokuthi ayikho engadluli, uma amazwe aseNyakatho anqontshwa phambilini ayikho ezovimba ukuthi nakulokhu anganqotshwa. Sofi ka isikhathi lapho i-UK ezogoba khona uphondo okwamanje amagalelo okufaka ingcindezi kumele angapheli.

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