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Inhlangano iBCM yayibeka owoHlanga eqhulwini
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Inhlangano iBCM yayibeka owoHlanga eqhulwini

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Unya olwalwenziwa ngabamhlophe befuqwa ubandlululo nenzondo lwadala ukuzenyeza okukhulu kwaboHlanga. Babethathiswa ekwezinto hhayi abantu ngesikhathi ubandlululo lusadla lubi, befana namagobolondo angenampilo. Phela ubandlululo lwalusemthethweni eNingizimu Afrika lushicilelwe emabhukwini okuphathwa kwezwe. Izinhlangano zepolitiki ezaziyizwi labantu, i-African National Congress (ANC) nePan Africanist Congress (PAC) zazivalwe umlomo, abantu bechithwa emadolobheni kuthiwe abahambe baye konomgogwana, oHulumeni Bezabelo. Uma uzibandakanya nepolitiki wawuba ukudla kwejele noma uHulumeni wamaBhunu akubulale.

I-United Nations (UN) ne- Organization for African Unity (OAU) ngowe-1973 bathi kuyicala ukubandlulula futhi akuhambisani nobuntu, beqondise enqubweni yaseNingizimu Afrika. Kusukela ngemuva kwesibhicongo saseSharpeville, samhla zingama-21 kuNdasa ngowe-1960, kwaba nokuthuthumela ezweni. Kwayona imfundo eyayinikezwa aboHlanga yayenzelwe ukuthi bangabi izakhamuzi eziziqhenyayo ngezwe lazo, yayenzelwe ukuthi babe izisebenzi zasemapulazini, abagqomi bemigwaqo nabatshali bamazambane emapulazini aseBethal. AboHlanga abasebekhanyiselwe, ikakhulukazi intsha eyayisemanyuvesi, yakhombisa intukuthelo ngesimo sezwe yahlangana yabumba iSouth African Student’s Organization (SASO) ngowe-1969, eyaxebuka kuNUSAS yabafundi abamhlophe. ISASO yayinenkambiso nenkolelo eyaziwa ngokuthi yiBlack Consciousness (BC). Le nqubo yayikhuthaza aboHlanga ukuthi baziqhenye ngebala labo, bazithande, bazethembe, babumbane, bazwane, bazihloniphe, bazithuthukise ngokwempilo, babe nobuntu nonembeza. Lezi zinto yizona ubandlululo olwaluziqeda kubantu.

UMnu uNelson Mandela noSolwazi uRobert Sobukwe babesejele, uMnu u-Oliver Tambo noMnu uMoses Mabhida besekudingisweni. Kulowo mnyama kwaqhamuka, uSteve Bantu Biko, insizwa eyayisencane eyayifunda e-University of Natal (eWentworth) yenza izifundo zobudokotela. Yayishumayela ivangeli loMnu uFrantz Fanon, elalikhuthaza ukuzethemba nokuziqhenya ngebala elimnyama. USolwazi uHebert Vilakazi (ongasekho), owafundisa emanyuvesi ahlukene e-USA, wayelwazi usizi lwabantu abamnyama base-USA okuyibona abasungula iBlack Pather Movement eyayifana neBlack Consciousness Movement (BCM) kaBiko. Abafundi oBiko, uBhokwe Mafuna, uStrini Moodley, uSaths Cooper, uMusibudi Aaron Mangena, u-Ishmael Mkhabela, uKhehla Mthembu, uMamphele Ramphele, uGelser Nkondo, uPeter Cyril Jones, uPhandelani Nefolovhodwe, uTiyani Lybon Mabasa, u-Itumeleng Jerry Mosala nabanye bahlangana eTurfloop basungula iSASO eyaba ngaphansi kweBlack People’s Convention (BPC).

IBPC yayiphikisana noHulumeni bezabelo abantu ababeyingxenye yabo bethathwa njengabadayisi. IBPC yayikholelwa kakhulu ekulweleni amalungelo ezisebenzi, ukuthuthukisa nokuqhakambisa amasiko namagugu esizwe. IBlack Consciousness yayingahambisani nokucwasana ngokobuzwe, iqhakambisa ubumbano kwaboHlanga nokuzwana okuhambisana nokusizana. IBCM yayibona owoHlanga ngaphambi kokuba lowo muntu abengumZulu, umXhosa, umSotho, umShangane nomVenda. Amalungu eBCM ayekhombisa ukuzethemba ngendlela eyisimanga, engavumi ukubukelwa phansi. Yayikhuthaza ukuthi aboHlanga bazimele yingakho kwakunesiqubulo esithi “Muntu omnyama umi wedwa” (Blackman you are on your own). Yayikholelwa ekutheni isikhali sokunqoba ubandlululo yimfundo, ukukhuthala, ukuzithuthukisa, ukuzithanda nokuzethemba.

Izibhelu zaseSoweto zangowe-1976 zaba umphumela wokuzigqaja kwaboHlanga (Black Consciousness) ngoba abafundi bathi sekwanele angeke baze bafundiswe izifundo ngesiBhunu. Abanye abaholi abasebebadala emzabalazweni njengoSolwazi uSobukwe noMnu uZeph Mothopeng, babesebenza neBCM umshoshaphansi. AmaBhunu ayeyizonda kabi iBCM ngoba yayinjengeva onyaweni lwawo. Zonke izimfundisoze amaBhunu ayezigxisha emiqondweni yaboHlanga, iBCM yayizikhahlela ngazo zombili. UBiko, owayehola iBCM, washayelwa umthetho wokuthi angaphumi eKing Williams Town ngoba waye newozawoza kubantu, engasaqhubeki nanezifundo zakhe zobudokotela. Yize ayesevalelwe enkanjini njengenkomo kodwa wakwazi ukusungula izinhlangano ezazisiza umphakathi. Ubuholi beBCM baboshwa ngemuva kokuba nombuthano owaheha abantu abayizi-10 000, iViva Frelimo Rally, enkundleni iCurries Fountain, eThekwini, ngowe-1974.

Kwakubungazwa ukunqoba kweFrelimo eMozambique iqumba phansi amaPutukezi. UMnu uMuntu kaMyeza, uStrini Moodley, uTerror Lekota, uSaths Cooper, ngabanye babaholi ababoshelwa ukuhlela lowo mbuthano. UJimmy Kruger, owayenguNgqongqoshe Wamaphoyisa ngaleso sikhathi, wakhipha umyalelo wokuthi amaViva Frelimo Rally awavalwe izwe lonke. Baboshwa abaholi beBCM, bagwetshwa iminyaka eyisi-6. NgoMfumfu we-1977, yena uKruger wavala umlomo izinhlangano ezili-17 ezazihambisana neBCM namaphephandaba iBantu World neSunday World ayehlelwa nguMnu uPercy Qoboza. Kwakunokwesaba kubantu ngoba noBiko wayesebulewe ngomhla zili-12 kuMandulo ngowe-1977. Kube sekuba nomhlangano eRooderpoort, entshonalanga yeGoli, lapho kwasungulwa khona i-Azanian People’s Organization (AZAPO) ngoMbasa we-1978. Le nhlangano yayishumayela ivangeli leBCM futhi ihamba ezimfundisweni zikaBiko. Abantu abake baboshwa eRobben Island, ababengamalungu eBCM, bayasho ukuthi babehlukunyezwa ukwedlula zonke iziboshwa ngoba babengayimeli “inonsense” yamaBhunu.

UMnu uPatrick Mkhize, ongomunye wabagqugquzeli bezinyunyana eThekwini, wadonsa eRobben Island. Abanye abaholi beBCM balifulathela elakuleli bayohlwaya kwamanye amazwe, ikakhulukazi ngoba intsha eningi yangowe-1976 yayisisabalele umhlaba wonke. Abaholi abaya ngaphandle basungula iBlack Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA) nguMnu uMosibudi Aaron Mangena, uMnu uJerious Kgokong, uMnu uNkutseu Motsau, uMnu uStrike Tokoane (onguMengameli we- AZAPO njengamanje) noMnu uVuyisa Qunta. Basungula uphiko lwezempi lwe (BCMA), i-Azanian National Liberation Army (AZANLA), bethola ukuqeqeshwa eLibya. I-AZAPO inalo uphiko lwabesifazane, iMbeleko, eholwa nguNks uSunshine “Sha” Mbhele, eThekwini. Yona i-AZAPO lena ivulwe umlomo nezinye izinhlangano ngowe-1990, abaholi bayo ababesekudingisweni babuyela emakhaya. Inkolelo yeBlack Consciousness isivukile, uyibona entsheni yanamuhla engamalungu e-Economic Freedom Fighters neBlack First Land First (BLF).

Imvamisa abantu abalungile futhi abawusizo emphakathini nabayisibonelo esihle kwabaningi abaphili isikhathi eside, basheshe bahambe emhlabeni kusalindelwe lukhulu kubona. Labo bantu kuthi uma sebehambile emhlabeni kusale kukhalwa kwazise indima enhle abese beyiqalile abazange bayiphothule. Omunye walabo bantu yingwazi uMnu uStephen “Steve” Bantu Biko owayengumholi weBlack Consciousness Movement (BCM). UBiko “ubaba wamaZim’ Zim” wabulawa ngamaBhunu obandlululo eneminyaka yobudala engama-31 kodwa izwe eselishukumise ngendlela ebabazekayo. UBiko wafa zili-12 kuMandulo ngowe-1977 ngemuva kokuhlukunyezwa ngokushaywa kusukela eboshiwe mhla zili-18 kuNcwaba ngowe-1977. Ugitsheliswe ngemuva evenini yamaphoyisa enqunu wahamba ibanga elingamakilomitha evile e-1000 eyiswa ejele iKgosi Mampuru (njengamanje) ePitoli, esuka ePort Elizabeth, elimele engasakwazi ukukhuluma, engasazikhumbuli negama lakhe.

Ijele ashonela kulo kwakuthiwa yiPretoria Central Prison ngaleso sikhathi, kunqunywa kulona abantu. Wayezalwe ngoZibandlela we-1946 elokishini iGinsberg, eKing Williams Town, e-Eastern Cape. UBiko uboshwe ngoba ayephule “umthetho” ayebekelwe wona wokungaphumi ngaphandle kwaseKing Williams Town, wayehamba nomngani wakhe, uMnu uPeter Cyril Jones, beya emhlanganweni eCape Town. Baboshwa ePort Elizabeth. Umthente uhlabe usamila ngoba uBiko uzalwa emndenini owawukhanyiselwe ngepolitiki e-Eastern Cape. Umnewabo, uMnu uKhaya Biko, wayeyilungu likaPoqo, uphiko lwezempi lwePan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC). UBiko waxoshwa eLovedale College, e-Eastern Cape, ngoba umnewabo waboshelwa ukuba yilungu likaPoqo.

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Wagcina esefudukele eSt Francis College eMarrianhill, entshonalanga yeTheku, lapho aphothula khona ibanga le-12, wemukelwa esikhungweni esiqeqesha odokotela eWentworth ngaphansi kwe- University of Natal. ISt Francis College ikhiqize uMnu uMosioua “Terror” Lekota, uDkt uBaldwin Sipho “Ben” Ngubane, uDkt uHarriette Ngubane, uDkt uBandile Mkhize, uSolwazi uMseshi Aaron Ndlovu (ongasekho), inyanga uSamuel Jamile (ongasekho) uMnu uSipho Ngobese noMnu uCyril Madlala, ababeyizintatheli zamaphephandaba, uMnu Zakhele “MZ” Khumalo nabanye. Efika uBiko eWentworth, waba yinkanyezi ekhanyisela hhayi nje abafundi boHlanga kuphela ababengontanga yakhe kodwa nesizwe sonke ngoba izinhlangano zepolitiki iPAC ne-African National Congress (ANC) zase zivalwe umlomo.

NguBiko owashumayela iBlack Consciousness ngeminyaka ye-1960 isiyophela kwaze kwaba sekuqaleni kweye-1970 kwaze waba uyashona. Izimfundiso zikaBiko zazinika ithemba kwaboHlanga ababecindezelwe. Yena nabanye abafundi basemanyuvesi abase bekhanyiselwe, baqhamuka nalo mkhankaso wokukhuculula insila yokuzenyeza kwaboHlanga. Ekufikeni kwakhe eWentworth, uzimbandakanye neNational Union of South African Students (NUSAS) eyayixube izinhlanga. Ekuhambeni kwesikhathi uBiko nabanye abafundi boHlanga baxebuka kuNUSAS besola insila yobandlululo kuyona, basungula iSouth African Students’ Organization (SASO) eyethulwa eTurfloop (University of the North) ngowe-1969.

UBiko wayehambela zonke izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme eshumayela ivangeli leBlack Consciousness, esungula namagatsha eSASO. Wafika oNgoye (University of Zululand,) KwaDlangezwa, wathola uMnu uLindani Muntu Myeza, UMnu uNichodemus Mthuli Shezi, uMnu uMusibudi Aaron Mangena bengabaholi beSASO, wafika e-University of Durban Westwille wathola uMnu uStrini Moodley, uMnu uSaths Cooper noMnu u-Imran Moosa wafolosa ngabo kuSASO. ETurfloop uBiko uhlangane noMnu uCyril Ramaphosa, uMnu Onkgopotse Abraham Tiro, uMnu uPhandelani Nefolovhodwe, uMnu uGesler Nkondo baqhuba umzabalazo weBCM. UBiko wagcina exoshiwe eMedical School (eWentworth) ngoba kwathiwa ulibala ukupolitika akanaso isikhathi sezincwadi. Uhamba nje basele uMnu uBen Ngubane, uMnu u-Olaf Baloyi, uNkk uMamphele Ramphele uMnu uManqoba Zwane noMnu uLelau Mohuba benza izifundo zobudokotela futhi baqhuba ivangeli leBCM. Uhambe ngowe-1972 eNyuvesi yaseNatal, yize kunjalo akadikibalanga wasungula nabanye izinhlangano ezisiza umphakathi eThekwini. Lezi zinhlangano zazingenzinzuzo, ezinye zise-Adams Mission, eningizimu yeTheku, zesekwa nguSolwazi uBen Khoapa.

Imfundiso yeBCM ayigcinanga ezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme ngemuva kokunqindwa amandla kukaBiko nozakwabo kodwa kwasungulwa iBlack People’s Convention (BPC), eyayinabaholi nezishoshovu ezazikholelwa kuBCM. Nabaholi bePAC abasebenqidwe Amandla babeyingxenye yeBPC kubalwa kubo uMnu uZeph Mothopeng. KuBPC kwakukhona abefundisi bezenkolo uMfundisi uFrank Chikane, uMfu uBarney Pityana, uMfu uBhuti Thlahale, nabefundisi bamaRoma aKhatholika baseRegina Mundi, eSoweto. Basungula iBlack Theology, eyayihambisana neBCM. Babesebinzisa ipulpiti ukuveza amahlazo nokulwa nenqubo yabandlululo. Yize uBiko wayengasavunyelwe ukuhlangana nokukhuluma emphakathini, waqhubeka wasebenza nezinhlangano zomphakathi ezazisungulwe nguyena e-Eastern Cape, ngenhloso yokuthuthukisa aboHlanga.

Wasungula umtholampilo iZanempilo neZimele Development Project, ebhala nasemaphephandabeni egxeka uHulumeni nenqubo yobandlululo. Waba ngumngani omkhulu womhleli wephephandaba iDaily Dispatch, uMnu uDonald Woods. UBiko wayengakholelwa ekutheni aboHlanga bangacela izinto kubelungu ekubeni benawo Amandla okuzenzela ngokwabo. USteve Biko uhambe emhlabeni eseganwe nguNkk uNontsikelelo “Ntsiki” Mashalaba, intombi yaseMthatha, eyayingumhlengikazi eKing Edward V111 eThekwini. Babusiswa ngezinsizwa ezimbili uNkosinathi ngowe-1971 noSamora ngowe-1975. Yasho inyosi yeSilo uDingane, uMagolwana kaMkhathi Jiyane, yathi: “Vezi kof’abantu kosal’ izibongo. Yizona ezosala zibalilela, zibadabula emanxiweni” Izinkolelo nezimfundiso zikaBiko yize yena eselele kobandayo, ziyohlala zimile ingunaphakade.

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