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Inyanga ye-Afrika nomnotho wayo
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Inyanga ye-Afrika nomnotho wayo

nguGugulethu Xaba

Kule nyanga uNhlaba sizobe sibheka umnotho wezwekazi i-Afrika. Le nyanga eyaqoshwa emlandweni we-Afrika njengenyanga yokugubha nokubungaza amagugu ezwekazi, sizobe sibheka ngokwehlukahlukana amazwe, amaqoqo ezizindahwebo, izimboni, neminotho ngokweminxa yayo. 

Njengalokhu i-Afrika seyingene esigabeni sokuqhuba ngamandla izindlela zokuhwebelana ngaphakathi kwamazwe ayo wonke angama-54, nanjengalokhu sihlala sithi janti kule ngosi ngobumqoka balolu daba ngaphansi kwesivumelwano se-African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), namuhla sizobheka izakhiwo zezizindamnotho ngokohla lwazo. Bese futhi sibuka ukuthi lesi sivumelwano se-AfCFTA esaziwa njengesikhulukazi ukuzedlula zonke ezamazwekazi akhona ngokwezigaba eziyisikhombisa emhlabeni singenziwa kanjani ukuba sakhiwe futhi sibe esisiza ama-Afrika kunokwabela izithebe zabezizwe.

Phezulu eqhulwini, kumele sikubalule ukuthi kulo mhlaba osuwaphenduka isiqebetho nangokwendlaleka kwawo ikakhulu kwezomnotho, nangesivinini sokukhula ngokumangazayo kwabantu bamazwe omhlaba, alikho nelilodwa izwe elizokwazi ukuthi libe elizimele geqe ngaphandle kokwethekela kwelinye okuthile. Lokhu singakubheka esigabeni sezokuxhumana, ubuchwepheshe obunhlobonhlobo, ukudla okuhambisana nezolimo, izimboni ezahlukene njengezezimoto njalo njalo. Ngenxa yobuchule, ulwazi nokuhlakanipha okusabalele umhlaba wonke ngokwezigaba zakho, kumele sikuqonde ukuthi ilelo nalelo lizwe lizoba nokwalo okuthize elingaphisana kumbe lethekelise ngakho kwelinye. Umanka uba kuphela sekuthenini kwethekeliswana kanjani, ngaphansi kwayiphi futhi imibandela. Kulapha-ke zivame ukushiyana ngomshefezo nxa sekuxoxwa kwakhiwa amasu namaqhingasu okwakhiwa kwayilelo nanelo zwe. 

Ukubaluleka kobuholi kulezi zingxoxo

Zonke izingxoxo ezisuke zenzeka kulezi zigaba zisuke kungezijulile, zibucayi bese kuthi ngaphezu kwalokhu, zibe ezinesilingo esikhulu kulabo abasuke bejutshwe ukuzihola. Ngenxa yokuthi zisuke zixube imali, kumele abaholi ikakhulu abasuke bejutshwele kuzo, kungaba osopolitiki kumbe izakhamuzi ezizimele, zibe nomgogodla oqinile, zibe ezithembekile emazweni azo, zibe futhi nobulungiswa nothando lwamazwe azo ngendlela esezingeni eliphezulu, zibe zixoxa zibhekelele izizukulwane ezizayo. 

Njengazo zonke izingxoxo, kuba khona ukunikezela nokwamukela kuze kufinyelelwe kuvuthondaba. Ilolu vuthondaba oluyothi lulethele bonke labo abaxoxisanayo isinqumo sokusiza izwe nezwe ngobulungiswa obungasikinganxanye kuphela. Kubonakale ngaphambili ukuthi phakathi kwesilingo esikhulu kubaholi be-Afrika, kuba abaholi okulula ukuthengisa abantu babo, bebathengisela abezizwe ngenxa nje yokuba nhliziyo engaphandle neheheka kalula imali, amandla, nobugovu obuhambisana nokuba ogombela kwesabo. Lokhu sikusho ngoba buningi ubufakazi obukhomba ukuthi i-Afrika ikuba ibinabaholi abangenazo lezi zifo esizibale ngenhla, ngabe ikude kakhulu kwezentuthuko jikelele. 

Cishe futhi yiyo ebingahamba phambili ekuholeni amazwe omhlaba kwezomnotho. Lokhu kucace bha ngisho esigabeni sezomnotho wezolimo, lapha lingekho nelilodwa izwe emhlabeni elinjenge-Afrika yona enomhlaba olinoni cishe ngama 65 wamaphesenti, inamadamu emvelo amakhulukazi ukukwazi ukuziphehlela ugesi, izungezwe ulwandle nxazonke nalo oluyifa le-Afrika kwezokudoba, imikhumbi kanjalo nezimbiwa ezitholakala kulo ulwandle, ibuye futhi ibe nezintabakazi amagquma namathafa ayifa lokuheha abavakashi, inezilwane zasendle ezingasatholakali nhlobo ezindaweni eziningi emhlabeni, inezimbiwa okuthi nakuba sezagujwa kangaka ukwanelisa amazwe abacindezeli, kepha isanokuningi kuleli fagugu okungakathintwa nhlobo kuwo lomnotho wezezimayini. 

Injalo nje inoketshezi oluwuwoyela ongakwazi ukwanelisa izidingo zezwekazi lonke ngaphandle kokwencika kumazwe angaphandle kwaleli zwekazi. Nokunye okuningi okungadinga cishe izinkulungwane zamaphepha ukuloba ngakho.   

Ukuvuka kwe-Afrika nezivumelwano ezintsha

Amaningi amazwe esingabala phakathi kwayo elaseJapan omnotho wawo ulinganiselwa kusigidintathu oyisi-$5.08, iBritain wona owusigidintathu omu-$2.83, i-USA wona owusigidintathu ongama-$21.43, iChina wona owusigidintathu oli-$14.34, iFrance wona owusigidintathu omu-$2.72, i-India wona owusigidintathu omu-$2.87, iGermany wona owusigidintathu omu-$3.86, namanye amakhulu emhlabeni asezihlelile maqondana nokukwazi ukusebenzisana ne- Afrika esizibumbe kabusha. 

Akumangalisi ukuthi cishe eminyakeni elishumi edlule, kwenzeke okungavamile lapho yilelo nalelo lizwe liye lahlela ingqungquthela ngalinye ukweshela izwekazi i-Afrika kwezomnotho. Lokhu bekwenzeka esigabeni lapho yilelo nalelo lizwe beleshela ngokwezidingo zalo, kwaphinda futhi kwashicilelwa izivumelwano zeminyaka ekuthenini lithekele lokho elikudingayo. Njengoba kwaziwa ukuthi i-Afrika isemanhlanunhlanu kwazise yabe inabacindezeli abehlukahlukene esingabala phakathi kwabo amaJalimane, amaPutukezi, amaNgisi, namaFulansi. Kusukela kulawo mazwe ayecindezele leli zwekazi kuya kulawo angakaze, yilelo nalelo lizwe belizifunela ukuba lingasileli emuva nxa seyidlondlobala i-Afrika. Udaba lususwe kakhulu ubudlelwano bamazwe ase-Afrika neChina. Amazwe amaningi asola iChina njengenobuqili obunzulu nxa kuziwa kwezomnotho nokuzinothisa, ukugabadula kwawo enxenxa i-Afrika bekuqhutshwa ukwesabela ukuthi amaShayina angase awole konke e-Afrika ebiyinkundla yawo yengcebo. 

Phakathi kokunye amazwe asekwenzile, ukufundisa kabanzi izingane zawo ngomnotho wezwekazi i-Afrika. Lapha nje eNyuvesi yaseWitwatersrand kunezingane eziningi zamaShayina ezifundiselwa ukuthi zibe ongqondongqondo bolwazi nge-Afrika. Lokhu zikwenza ezinye izizwe ukuze ngisho nezizukulwane zazo zazi kabanzi ngokuthi i-Afrika inani futhi ibhekephi kusasa. Akumangalisi ukuthi ngenxa yokuthi la mazwe azihlele kahle wona, isibonelo i-India neChina okuthi enabantu cishe abalinganayo ne-Afrika ngalinye, abe nomengameli ababodwa nxa uwaqhathanisa ne-Afrika yona enomengameli abangama-54. La mazwe amabili, axoxa ngazwilinye futhi wona namanye amazwe aseze abe nabeluleki abavela khona ukuze asize ukweluleka i-Afrika ikakhulu abaholi bezepolitiki e-Afrika maqondana nokuphathwa kwamazwe abo. 

See Also

Umbuzo omkhulu othi i-Afrika yona isizihlele ngokwanele yini ukusebenzisana nala mazwe ukuze ingawakwa, kwazise inkulu ingcuphe yokuthi uma kungenjalo, lokhu kungaphenduka ihlandla lesibili lengcindezelo yama-Afrika?  

Ukuzihlela kwe-Afrika 

Okusazoba nzinyana e-Afrika yindlela esaphethwe ngayo, kwazise isenomengameli abangama-54 lokhu okwenza kungabi lula ukuzimelela ezintweni ezimele ukwenzeka e-Afrika, lapho phela kumele ikwazi ukukhuluma ngazwi linye. Sake saloba ngaphambilini kulengosi ngephupho lalowo owabe enguMengameli waseGhana uMnu uKwame Nkrumah lokuthi kusuka iGhana yathola inkululeko, wahlongoza ukuba i-Afrika kusuka lapho ayihlelwe ibe izwe elilodwa. Yize wabhuntshiswa umbono wakhe ngenxa yozakwabo kepha ngabe i-Afrika ingcono kakhulu kunalokhu, kwazise mhlawumbe ngabe seyikwazile ukufinyelela esigabeni esifana nelaseNdiya kumbe i-Shayina. Ngenxa yala manhlanunhlanu kusangase kuthathe isikhathi eside ukufezekisa leli phupho ngenxa yokuthi kusangalukhuni ukuphathwa inhloko eyodwa engumengameli we-Afrika jikelele. 

Okwamanje, kungamele kusetshenzelwe phezu kwezinhlaka ezivele zikhona. Lapha sizobheka izinhlaka zezomnotho ezingaphansi kwenhlangano i-African Union. Lezi zinhlaka ezilandelayo neziyisishiyagalombili yilezi: i-Eastern African Communities (EAC), i-Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), i-Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), i-Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), i-Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), iCommunity of the Sahel-Saharab States (CEN-SAD), iCommon Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) kanye neSouthern African Development Community (SADC). 

Lezi zinhlelo ze-Afrika zinezinhla cishe ezinhlanu ezibhekelwe yizo, singabala ukuhamba kwabantu ngenkululeko phakathi kwamazwe, ingqalasizinda ehlanganyelwe, ezohwebo emazingeni aphezulu, ukwakhiwa kwezizindla ezihlanganyele zokukhiqiza kanye nokuhwebelana.

Ngezinkulumo, ukuxhumana namanye amazwe e-Afrika nakulabo abafuna ukwazi kabanzi ngezohwebo, ningaxhumana ku:www.amandlaomnotho.co.za

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