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Isigaba esinzulu se-African Continental Free Trade Area
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Isigaba esinzulu se-African Continental Free Trade Area

nguGugulethu Xaba

Umgqigqo ngesivumelwano sokuhwebelana samazwe ezwekazi i-Afrika selokhu uqhubeke njalo. Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi sike sabhala ngalesi sivumelwano ngaphambilini, lapho kuthe lulunye kuMasingana kowezi-2021, lowo obenguSihlalo we-African Union, okuyinhlangano yamazwe onke ase-Afrika uMnu uCyril Ramaphosa enozakwabo, bashicilela ukusebenza ngokusemthethweni kwalesi sivumelano. Esingakuqinisekisisa ukuthi sibhala nje, lo mgqigqo usukwelinye izinga njengoba amazwe amaningi ase-Afrika ematasa esebenza ukufezekisa leli phupho. 

I-Afrika inamazwe angama-55 kanti abantu abakhele leli zwekazi balinganiselwa ngaphezu kwesigidigidi esiso-1.2. Umkhiqizo womnotho owakhiwa yila mazwe angama-55 ase-Afrika uwonke ulinganiselwa kusigidintathu omu-$2.6. Uma sikhuluma ngenani lentengiselwano yona ilinganiselwa kusigidintathu oyisi-$6.7. Yize kungabukeka kuyizindodla zemali lezi, kodwa akuhambisani nendlela i-Afrika okumele ngabe yenza ngayo. Kanti nxa ukhuluma ngezohwebo isilele kakhulu emuva ngisho uzama ukuyiqhathanisa namazwekazi kumbe izizinda zamaqoqo amazwe ahlanganyele emhlabeni. Yingakho uzothola ukuthi eminingi yemikhiqizo okumele ngabe yakhiwa ngaphakathi kulo izwekazi ize ilandwe emazweni othola ukuthi awanamandla ngisho ukukhiqiza izimpahla esigabeni esiphansi. Kunalokho la mazwe alanda imikhiqizo lena oningi layo lisuke lingakahluzwa, bese eseyibuyisa kuleli zwekazi seyihluziwe okugcina isibiza imba eqolo. Phakathi kokuningi singabala izikhumba zezilwane ezibuya seziyizikhumba ezinhle zezihlalo zezimoto kumbe izicathulo esezakhiwe kahle zibiza inkihlinkihli yemali. Okunye yizo belu izimbiwa eziningi, okubandakanya igolide, isiliva, idayimane nokuningi okumbiwa phansi maqede kuhambe kuye emazweni angenakho, akwengezele maqedane akubuyise kwelengabadi.

 Ngenxa yalo mgomo we-AfCFTA, kulindeleke ukuthi i-Afrika ifinyelele esigabeni sokwenza ngaphezulu kukasigidintathu oyisi-$5 eminyakeni engaphezudlwana kweshumi ezayo. 

Nxa i-Afrika ifisa ukuzilamula kulolu sizi, yize seyikhona i-AfCFTA kuzomele isebenze kanzima ukwakha ukuzethemba, esigabeni salokhu kuhwebelwana. 

Yikhona lokhu phakathi kwezinye izizathu okwenza kubukwe ukuthi i-Afrika ingakhula kanjani ize ifinyelele ezingeni elisimeme kakhulu nelizimele kwezomnotho.  Ngaphandle kokuthi i-Afrika isamele iphinde ibukeze ukuphathwa kwayo esigabeni sobuholi, lapho kuyomele ngelinye ilanga ama-Afrika azi ukuthi umuntu munye kungabe usuka enhla noma ezansi nezwe. Kuyazeka ukuthi lesi sigaba esalwelwa oMnu uGadaffi, uNkrumah nabanye asiyona into eyokwazi ukufinyeleleka ngokushesha kwazise ukungahlangani kwe-Afrika kuyinzuzo enkulu kumazwe asaqhubeka edlala ngayo. Ngisho nala mazwe aziwa njengamadlandawonye ne-Afrika, afana ne-India neChina njalonjalo. Kwawona ayazi ukuthi ukuhlangana kwe-Afrika ibe yinye, kungawadalela enkulu inkinga ngoba kuyosho ubumbano oluyowabhincisela nxanye. Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi nxa ubheka amazwe afana nalawa esiwabale ngenhla, lilinye cishe linabantu abathi abalingane nelase-Afrika. Kepha elinye nelinye lawo, abuswa njengezwe elilodwa kunokubuswa manhlanunhlanu njenge-Afrika. I-Afrika nxa iyophumelela iyodinga ukuthi ihambe ifike ezingeni lapho izibuka khona njengezwe elilodwa kunala manhlanunhlanu. Yize kungase kungenzeki lokhu kulesi sizukulwane, kepha imbewu kumele mayiqale itshalwe esizukulwaneni esilandelayo ngalo mbono kube kwakhelwa phezu komsebenzi ofana ne-AfCFTA esiqalile. 

Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi ubunye nenqubekela phambili ezigabeni eziningi, umnotho, ipolitiki, ingqalasizinda nokunye, impumelelo enkulukazi ivela ekubumbaneni kwamazwe abe yisizwe. Yinoma yiliphi izwe elikhonyayo emhlabeni linalezi zigaba okubandakanya nobuningi ngisho babantu. Ngisho i-USA imbala, inezifunda ezingamashumi amahlanu ezingakwazi ukuzimela ziphenduke izwana ngazinye, kepha kwathatha omkhulu umsebenzi nombono wokhokho bakhona ukuhlanganisa la mazwe abe yizwe elilodwa eselinabantu abayizigidi ezingama-340. Ukuhola kwalo kwezomnotho emhlabeni kuhambisana ngqo nalokhu phakathi kwezinye izizathu. 

Esigabeni se-AfCFTA nxa singabheka kafushane, siyathola ukuthi iningi lamazwe asenhla ne-Afrika, abukeka ethakasela kakhulu le nqubomgomo ye-African Union. Kanti nxa uza ngezansi ne Afrika, kakhulukazi esigabeni saboHlanga, kubukeka kucwebe isiziba. Ngisho nakho nje ukuthi le AfCFTA yenziwe indaba egudwini, akuzwakali ngisho ukuswebeza ngalolu daba. Umbuzo othi, kwenziwa yini lokhu na? 

 Udaba okufanele ngabe kukhulunywa ngalo ezindaweni eziningi kangaka akuzwakali lutho ngalo, ingabe aboHlanga bayabuqonda yini ubumqoka balolu daba, kumbe umthelela omuhle ongavezwa ukusebenzisana okuyothi kulethele leli imisebenzi eminingi na? 

Sizama ukuhlaziya udaba losozimboni abamnyama ngokulawula kwesigaba seBlack Industrialist Policy, okuyisigaba sokukhuthaza ukuzibandakanya kosozimboni abamnyama jikelele okubandakanya aboHlanga abangama-Afrika, amaNdiya namaKhaladi sitholile ukuthi basagqoza ngendlela ongakaze uyibone, ikakhulu ezigabeni ezibalulekile zezomnotho. 

Lezi ezifana nomnotho wolwandle, amabhanoyi, ezokuthutha, ukwakha izimpahla, ukuhluzwa kwezezolimo, ingqalasizinda nokunye. Nxa sibheka aboHlanga abaningi, abazibandakanyi nhlobo nalezi zimboni. Mhlawumbe singabheka uHulumeni ukuthi uthini ngalokhu, iqiniso elimsulwa elithi nabo aboHlanga banomthelela ekuthenini bangangeni kulezi zimboni ngenxa yokungazihluphi ukuthi babheke lapho kukhona amathuba afana nalawa. Kunalokho, aboHlanga babonakala bezibandakanye kakhulu nezinto ezithinta imali yamathenda, imisebenzana engatheni futhi engahambisani nemikhiqizo okulindeleke ukuthi bazenzele yona. AboHlanga babonakala benethezekile ukuthi kukhona ababakhela izinto abazigqokayo, ukudla abakudlayo nezinqola abaziqhubayo. Kubonakala kungekho umlilo osha ubuhanguhangu ngaphakathi othi nathi boHlanga, asizimele sizakhele owethu umnotho ngokuzikhandla. Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi ukungena kulesi sigaba kudinga ukuzimisela okuthe xaxa. Kusuke kusho ukuthi kumele uzimisele ngisho nokusebenza ungcole. Imfundisoze eyimfishimfishi ibonakala ifundise aboHlanga ukwazi umsebenzi wasemahhovisi, okuthi noma sekukhulunywe kangakanani babe yingcosana abasabela kukhwelo lokuzibandakanya nomsebenzi wokukhiqiza. 

Nxa aboHlanga besahlulwa ukugoqa leli laseNingizimu Afrika kwezomnotho, umbuzo omkhulu othi, bayokwazi yini ukusebenza ezwenikazi labo i-Afrika, kwazise phela kuyaziwa leli zwekazi alidingi abantu onhliziyo zabo zinkenenkene. Mkhulu umsebenzi. 

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Okungenziwa ukuqinisekisa ukuthenga izimpahla ezweni

Umkhakhanso wokuthi izwe ngalinye liqinisekise ukuthi izakhamuzi zalo zithenga izimpahla ngaphakathi uyakhula. Sizwile muva nje ukuthi selokhu ethathe izintambo uMengameli omusha wase-USA, uJoe Biden, uyakhula umkhankaso wokuthi izakhamuzi mazithenge izimpahla ezenziwa yilelo lizwe, ngisho ngabe zibiza kangakanani. 

Kafushane sifisa ukubheka imibandela engalandelwa yilelo nalelo lizwe ekuthengeni izimpahla ngaphakathi. Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi abantu bayizidalwa zenjwayelo. Nxa sebeyazi futhi sebeyijwayele into akulula ukusuka kuyo. Yingakho nxa kuvele omunye umkhiqizo ongaziwa, kuba lukhuni ukuwamukela. Ukuze ukwazi ukuheha nokweshelela abantu emkhiqizweni wakho omusha udinga izindlela ezisezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu lokucabanga ukuze wenze abantu bawuthande umkhiqizo wakho omusha. 

Phakathi kokunye, udinga ukulandela imigomo yezempilo neyokwakha umkhiqizo lowo esezingeni lomhlaba. Udinga futhi ukulandela izindlela ezizokudonsela abantu esigabeni senani elifinyelelekayo kunokumba eqolo ngomkhiqizo abantu abangakawazi. Isigaba sokwethenjwa komkhiqizo kumele sibe esethembakele kakhulu ukuze umkhiqizo lowo ungaphoxi nxa usuqhathaniswa neminye esezingeni lawo. 

Okunye, ukulandela imigomo emihle yokuhambisa lowo mkhiqizo ezindaweni lapho kumele ufinyelele khona ngokungananazi. Lokhu kusiza ukuthi abantu bangangabazi ukuthi nxa bewufuna angeke ukwazi ukugqoza, ngenxa yezizathu ezingabambeki. Yilezi nezinye izizathu ezingakwazi ukwenza izwe nezwe likwazi ukufukula umnotho walo ngaphakathi, futhi ulethe ukwethembeka. 

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