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Umlando wobuhlalu e-Afrika
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Umlando wobuhlalu e-Afrika

I-Afrika yaziwa kakhulu ngomsebenzi wayo omuhle ‘owenziwe ngezandla’ wobuhlalu. Ubuhlalu base-Afrika yimisebenzi yobuciko emihle kakhulu.

Ubuhlalu buvamise ukugqokwa ngenkathi kuvezwa ubuciko ngokwesibonelo, eNigeria, izindlovukazi zaseKalakuta endaweni engcwele kaFela zazivame ukuhlotshiswa ngobuhlalu obumibalabala ngenkathi zinandisa esiteji.

Ubuhlalu busetshenziswa ezingxenyeni ezahlukene zase-Afrika njengokuhloba noma imisebenzi yobuciko. Ubuhlalu bungaba ngesimo se-ankle, isongo, iketanga okhalo, umgexo, izindandatho, namacici njll.

Okubaluleke kakhulu, bezisebenza njengokuhloba ngoba kusiza ekuchazeni nasekuvezeni isimo somuntu, kanye nokuthi ukusiphi isizwe noma iqembu.

Ukusetshenziswa kobuhlalu e-Afrika kungalandelelwa emuva okungenani eminyakeni eyi-12,000. Ubuhlalu obudala kakhulu obaziwayo butholakale ogwadule lwaseKalahari, eSudan naseLibya.

Ubuhlalu bokuqala benziwa ngegobolondo leqanda, ubumba, amagatsha, amatshe, izinyo lendlovu kanye nethambo – ubuhlalu bengilazi bethulwa kamuva ngabahwebi abavela eYurophu, eNdiya naseMpumalanga Ephakathi.

Ekhulwini le-18 nele-19, izigidi zobuhlalu obunemibala yamagobolondo zathunyelwa ngomkhumbi zisuka emazweni aseYurophu zayiswa e-Afrika ukuze zihwebe ngezigqila.

Ubuhlalu obenziwa ngaleso sikhathi babubhekiselwa ‘kubuhlalu bokuhweba’ ngoba babusetshenziselwa ukuhwebelana ngezimpahla noma busetshenziswa njengemali.

Ubucwebe obudala kunabo bonke base-Afrika obake batholakala busanda kutholwa, ngo-2004, emhumeni waseBlombos osemachosheni aseningizimu yeNingizimu Afrika. Zilinganiselwa eminyakeni engaphezu kuka-75 000 ubudala futhi zilingana nophizi, ubuhlalu begobolondo le-mollusc obabubhotshoziwe.

Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi, Abadwebi bezandla e-Afrika baqhubekile nokukhiqiza umsebenzi wabo omuhle wobuhlalu bendabuko ohlukile esizweni sabo noma esifundeni. Ukudayisa nokukhiqiza ubuhlalu bese kuba ubucwebe kubo kuye kwaba umthombo omkhulu wemali engenayo.

Ngaphandle kwendima yabo njengokuhloba ngokomzimba, ubuhlalu buphakathi kwezimpawu zakudala ezaziwayo ezisetshenziswa isintu, ezinye zazo ezabelana ngesikhathi nendawo ngemidwebo nezimpawu zakuqala ezaziwa emhumeni ziwukubonakaliswa ngokomzimba komcabango othuthukile.

Kanjalo, ubuhlalu bunezimfanelo zenkolo, zezenhlalo, nezokuhlobisa. E-Afrika, ngaphezu kwanoma yisiphi esinye isifunda, sekuyisikhathi eside benendima evelele.

Amagobolondo eCowry angatholakala kulo lonke elase-Afrika futhi cishe awuphawu lokuhlobisa olusetshenziswa kakhulu ezwenikazi.

IGhana bekuyiyona futhi kusenguye umkhiqizi omkhulu wobuhlalu e-Afrika; abantu base-Ashanti nabakwaKrobo babenza ngengilazi ewumpuphu ebonakala ngendlela eyingqayizivele.

EMalawi benza ubuhlalu bengilazi obugqamile obuthanda amaphethini ezimbali

EMozambique, amatshe ayigugu omdabu ayindlela edumile.

IZaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) yaziwa ngobuhlalu bamatshe.

I-Uganda ihamba phambili ngokwenza ubuhlalu ngephepha eligaywe kabusha.

E-Ethiopia, abesilisa nabesifazane besizwe sakwaHamer bobabili bagqoka amabhande asekhanda, amabhande engalo, imigexo kanye nokucwiliswa kobuhlalu.

Ukusetshenziswa kobuhlalu okuyinkimbinkimbi noma yikuphi e-Afrika kumele kube isiko lokuqomisana nokushada phakathi kwamaZulu. Ubuhlalu besiZulu empeleni buwuhlelo lolimi lapho imibala, amaphethini nezinto zesambatho ziveza khona izincazelo ezithile.

Amadoda angamaZulu agqoka ubuhlalu ukukhombisa ukuzinikela kubantu besifazane ahlose ukubashada. Ngenxa yokulala nezihlobo, omama, odadewabo namadodakazi abalokothi banike izihlobo zabo zesilisa ubuhlalu.

Nokho, ‘abenzi bobuhlalu’ abaqashelwa kakhulu e-Afrika ngabesifazane baseMaasai baseKenya.

Ubuhlalu nombala wabo umele isiko labo, kuhlanganise nokuthanda izinkomo. Imibala ibuye ibe nenjongo; umbala obomvu usho isibindi futhi oluhlaza umele impilo yezinkomo zabo

EGibhithe kudala, izicukuthwane zazihlobisa izilwane ezifuywayo ngobuhlalu. Namuhla, abantu abaningi bahlobisa izinja zabo ngobucwebe nezingubo zezilwane ezifuywayo. Sisenalowo mzwelo omdala oyisisekelo womuntu othanda ukuhlobisa ubucwebe.

Izazi-mlando zikholelwa ukuthi isiko lase-Afrika lokugqoka ubuhlalu lisho ingcebo kanye nobukhosi. Ngokwesibonelo, amakhosi aseNigeria afaka ubuhlalu ukuze abonise ubukhosi bawo.

Umlando womugqa wesikhathi wobuhlalu base-Afrika

Umlando wobuhlalu wase-Afrika othakazelisayo wandulela inkathi ye-African Trade Bead eminyakeni engaphezu kuka-75,000; izibonelo zokuqala ezaziwayo ezitholakala eBlombos Cave, ogwini lwaseNingizimu Afrika (ngaseCape Town) ngo-2004.

Isazi semivubukulo uChris Henshilwood wembula ingcebo yezinto zakudala, kuhlanganise nobuhlalu bokuqala obaziwayo ngenjongo yokuhlobisa – eyenziwe ngegobolondo lamaqanda ezintshe.

See Also

African Beads: Ubufakazi bomlando

Ubuhlalu obufanayo okucatshangwa ukuthi buneminyaka engaphezu kuka-12,000 ubudala buye batholakala eKenya, eLibya naseSudan okwenezela ubufakazi emlandweni wabantu baseTurkana abake babona lobu buhlalu ngenani labo njengemali. Ubuhlalu begobolondo lamaqanda babuzokwethulwa kwabesifazane njengengxenye yelobolo labo ngaphambi komshado. Kucatshangwa futhi ukuthi imicu yobuhlalu enjalo yayihwebelana ngezinkomo nezimpahla endaweni.

Ubuhlalu begobolondo le-Cowrie kanye nethambo Ubuhlalu kucatshangwa ukuthi buphakathi kwezinhlobo zokuqala zobuhlalu obusetshenziselwa izinjongo zohwebo phakathi kwe-Afrika, kuze kube yikhulu le-4 B.C lapho ubuhlalu bengilazi bungena e-Afrika busuka eGibhithe naseNtshonalanga Yurophu. Ubufakazi bokukhiqizwa kobuhlalu bengilazi obekubusa umnotho wase-Afrika cishe iminyaka engama-700 buye batholakala e-Egypt naseNingizimu Afrika, kusukela ngekhulu le-9. Lobu buhlalu obuncane bebulukwe emakholeni amnandi, amakhanda nezingubo ezigqokwa amalungu omndeni waseNdlunkulu, izikhulu kanye nezicukuthwane.

Umlando wobuhlalu e-Afrika: Ikhulu lesi-4

Umlando wobuhlalu e-Afrika uyamangalisa, ngezinto zobuciko ezahlukahlukene nezindawo ezisebenza njengobufakazi bomlando ocebile wobuhlalu base-Afrika. Izindawo zokungcwaba ezifana neValley of The Kings zisivumele ukuthi sembule ingcebo ebalulekile yobucwebe nezinto zokuhlobisa ezenziwe ngengilazi. Ubuhlalu bengilazi baphinde bangena e-Afrika busuka ePortugal phakathi nekhulu lesine, isiqalo esingekho emthethweni senkathi yohwebo e-Afrika echumayo.

Kuze kube yi-12th Century lapho sibona khona ubufakazi bangempela bokukhiqizwa kwe-glass bead ngaphakathi kwezindawo eziphawulekayo zokukhiqiza zanamuhla, njengeGhana, iKrobo, i-Ethiopia neNigeria.

Izindlela ezisetshenziswe ngaphakathi kwalokhu kukhiqizwa azifani nalezo ezisetshenziswa namuhla ekukhiqizeni ubuhlalu beGlass Obugaywe Kabusha; lapho izinhlayiya zomhlabathi zihlanganiswa ngaphambi kokudubula. Indlela yokuqala ibizwa ngokuthi ukukhiqizwa kobuhlalu bengilazi obumanzi-core futhi kwakuyinqubo ehamba kancane kabuhlungu.

Ubuhlalu obunjalo babuvumela abantu bezizwe ukuthi bahwebe nezifunda ezingomakhelwane, kodwa babusetshenziselwa kakhulu amasiko, imikhosi yokudlula kanye nokwelapha okuphelele.

Umlando Wobuhlalu Wase-Afrika: Ikhulu Le-14

Kusukela ngekhulu le-14, abahloli bamazwe baqala ukufika ogwini lwaseNingizimu Afrika bephethe ubuhlalu bengilazi obumibalabala ukuze bahwebe ukuze kudlule izifunda eziphephile – futhi ekugcineni ingcebo yaleli zwe langaphandle elihlanganisa amafutha esundu, uboya nezinongo. Imakethe yezigqila nayo kucatshangwa ukuthi ithuthukile kule minyaka yokuqala, futhi izoba yisisekelo ekuthuthukiseni umnotho wesifunda sase-Afrika.

Ukukhiqizwa kwemali yase-Afrika kwaqala ukwanda ngaphakathi kweVenice ngeminyaka yawo-1500. AmaChevron anemithende ayewumkhiqizo ovame kakhulu kule nkathi, nakuba iMillefiori Beads yathola umusa othile kumakhosi ezizwe zase-Afrika ngasekupheleni kwekhulunyaka. I-boom yeMillefiori izohlala eminye iminyaka engama-400. “Inkathi Yohwebo Lwegolide” yase-Afrika isukela ngowe-1700 kuya kowe-1920; isikhathi esabona amazinga aphezulu kakhulu ezohwebo nomnotho emlandweni.

Ubuhlalu Bezentengiselwano baseVenetian babevame ukubizwa ngegama labo elingelona iqiniso elithi “ubuhlalu besigqila” ngenxa yenani eliphakeme ababeliqaphela lapho beshintshana ngezigqila. Ubuhlalu beChevron obumise okweDonut kanye noPhayinaphu obunemibala esukela ku-4-12 ngenani babuphakathi kwemiphefumulo evame kakhulu, nokho iVenetian Ghosts ephaphathekile, iKing Chevrons kanye ne-Elbow Millefiori Beads nazo zaziphakathi kwezaziswa kakhulu.

Ingabe ufuna ukwazi okwengeziwe ngomlando othakazelisayo we-African Trade Beads? Bheka amaqoqo amangalisayo eThe Bead Chest of Fancy Venetian Beads kanye Ne-African Trade Beads, noma ufunde ezinye izihloko kulolu chungechunge ezinikeza amaqiniso athakazelisayo ngomnotho wase-Afrika wobuhlalu obumibalabala.

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