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Umkhokha: Impethu yokuketulwa kohulumeni e-Afrika Indawondawo
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Umkhokha: Impethu yokuketulwa kohulumeni e-Afrika Indawondawo

Kusukela ngeminyaka ye-1960 lapho amazwe ase-Afrika ayeseqala ukuthola inkululeko, kwahambisana nokuqala kwezigameko zokuqunjwa phansi kohulumeni nemibuso. Isigameko sokuqala sokuketulwa kombuso e-Afrika saba mhla zili-13 kuMasingana ngowezi-1963, nalapho owayenguMengameli waseTogo, uMnu uSylvanus Olympio nowaba negalelo elibanzi ekulweleni inkululeko yeTogo wabulawa amasosha emveni kokuqumba phansi uHulumeni ayewuhola.

Lesi sigameko senzeka kungakapheli ngisho iminyaka emithathu lelizwe lathola inkuleleko ngowezi-1960. Esinye isigameko, nesamangaza abaningi ezwenikazi nasemhlabeni jikelele, senzeka ngowe-1966, lapho uhulumeni wesigomagoma senkululeko ye-Afrika, uKwame Nkrumah waqunjwa phansi amagumgedlela aseGhana. Kwenzeka konke lokhu uMengameli uNkrumah wayengaphandle kwezwe njengoba wayehambele eNorth Vietnam naseChina, nokwamphoqa ukuba angabe esakwazi ukubuyela kwelakuba wagcina esebhace ekudingisweni eGuinea-Conakry kwaze kwaba uya koyisemkhulu. 

Ebhukwini uNkrumah alishicilela  ngowezi-1969 elisihloko sithi: Dark Days in Ghana akazange ananaze ngokusola i-United States of America (USA) ngokuqunjwa phansi kombuso wakhe ngelokuthi yayingahambisani nezinye zezinhlelo kwezokuphathwa kwezomnotho nezepolitki eGhana.  Ngasohlangothini luka Mengameli u-Olympio nakhona zaba khona izinsolo zokuthi iFrance nokuyiyo eyayilawula iTogo ngesikhathi samakoloni, yaba nesandla ekuqumbeni phansi uhulumeni ayewuhola.

Ucwaningo olwehlukene luveza ukuthi, ngeminyaka yowe-1960 kuya kweye-1970, ngokwezibalo, kwakuba nemizamo yokuketula imibuso emazweni ehlukene e-Afrika njalo ezinsukwini ezingama-55. Ngokwesilinganiso, phakathi kweminyaka yezi 1960-2000, kwakuketulwa umbuso izikhathi ezine ngonyaka. Phezu kwalokho, ucwaningo luphinde luveze ukuthi amazwe angaphezu kwama- 90% aseke abhekana nesimo lapho kuketulwa umbuso okungenani kanye noma imizamo  yokuketulwa umbuso emlandweni wawo. Noma lesihlava  sathi ukudamba eminyakeni yowe-2000s, kodwa kusukela ngowezi-2010 saphinde saqubuka, nalapho kubalwa izigameko ezingama-40 zokuketulwa nokuzama ukuketulwa kwemibuso e-Afrika. Kulezigameko ezaqala ngowezi 2010, ezingama-20 zenzeka eNtshonalanga Afrika nasemazweni ayingxenye yesifundazwe iSahel. Kusukela ngowezi 2019, kwimizamo eyi-7 yokuketula umbuso, eyi-6 yaba eNtshonalanga Afrika yenzeka kumazwe ayengamakoloni eFrance.

Yize izwekazi, kusukela ngowezi 1960, lalihlezi libhekene nokuketulwa kwemibuso, iNhlangano yamazwe ase-Africa yangaphambili iOrganisation of African Unity (OAU) yayingakaze ithathe izinyathelo ezingqala ngalezigameko. Ngaleyo minyaka, iOAU yabe isebenza ngaphansi kohlelo oluthi angeke igxambukele ‘ezindabeni zasekhaya zamazwe angamalungu’.  ‘Le nqubomgomo’ yenza ukuba i-OAU ithathwe njengenhlangano engelutho kepha esebenza ukuvikela abacindezela amalungelo abantu, nezinswelaboya ezizenzela umathanda ngendlela ezibambe ngayo izintambo zombuso. Kepha lokhu kwaguquka ngeminyaka yowezi-1990. Uhlelo lwalezi nguquko lwabonakala ngonyaka wezi-1991 lapho uMnu uSalim Ahmed Salim, nowayenguNobhala Jikelele we-OAU, washicilela umkhombandlela owabizwa ngeReport of the Secretary-General on the Fundamental Changes Taking Place in the World and their Implications for Africa: Proposals for an African Response.

Kulo mkhombandlela, uSalim waphakamisa ukuthi sekufike isikhathi lapho lenhlangano ingeke isakwazi ukuthula uma amazwe angamalungu ayo, ehluleka ukuphatha umbuso ngendlela egculisayo. Lesinyathelo sikaSalim saba yisizinda esadala amathuba okuthi i-OAU ingathuli mhlazana kuqunjwa phansi uhulumeni waseComoros mhla zingama 28 kuMandulo we-1995. Lesinyathelo sokuqala ngqa se-OAU, sanconywa abaningi njengesasikhombisa ukuthi izwekazi selizogaya ngomunye umhlathi.

Lesinyathelo saba yisandulela yemihlangano eminingi ye-OAU kudingidwa lolu daba neyaphetha ngokuthi leNhlangano ithathe isinqumo esathi ukuguqulwa kukahulumeni okuphambene nomthethosisekelo  angeke kuphinde kuvunyelwe e-Afrika. Yase ibeka imgomo eyolandelwa uma lokhu kwenzeka nokubalwa unswinyo kulabo abenze njalo, ukuhoxisa ubulungu balelo lizwe kwi-OAU, nokulifaka ingcindezi yokuthi lisheshe lize nezinhlelo zokubuyisela uhulumeni kwinqubo yedemokhrasi. Kwakulandelwa lenqubomgomo phambilini mhlazane amazwe ajenge-Egypt (2013), Central African Republic (CAR), Sudan (2019), kanye ne Mali (2021) emiswa okwesikhashana ekubeni ngamalungu e-African Union.

Isigameko sakamuva esenzeke eBurkina Faso, lapho uKaputeni uTraoré oneminyaka engama-34, eketule uhulumeni wamagumgedlela kaColonel uDamiba. Kuzokhunjulwa ukuthi kwayena uDamiba wabhozomela lesikhundla ngoMasingana nonyaka ngokuketula uMengameli owayephethe.

See Also

Izizathu ezibekwe uTraoré ngakwenzile ziyafana nezazibekwe nguDamiba nokungukuthi bakhalazela ukwehluleka kukahulumeni ukubhekana ngqo nontamolukhunu kuleliyazwe  abasaqhubekile nokubhebhethekisa impi yombango kwizifunda ezahlukene ezweni. UDamiba uqunjwa phansi nje, bekukade sekunesivumelwano nabahola amazwe aseNtshonalanga ye-Afrika ngaphansi kwe-Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) ngezinyathelo abezozithatha ukuze amasosha abuyele ezinkanjini. Nakulesi sigameko sakamuva, i-ECOWAS ayigayelwanga mphako, iphawula kayigxekanga kuphela isenzo sikaTraoré, kodwa ithumele nethimba layo eBurkina Faso ukuyogcizelela ukungahambisani ngokwenzekile nokufaka ingcindezi yezinguquko.

Elinye iqiniso elimsulwa ngelokuthi uma kunezigameko ezifana nalezi e-Afrika kuhlale kukhona izinsolo noma izinkomba zokugxambukela kwamanye amazwe, ikakhulukazi awasenyakatho. Kukhulunywa nje, emveni kokuketulwa kukaDamiba iyanda imibiko eveza ukuthi ‘umqhudelwano’ okhona phakathi kweRussia neFrance  ube nomthelela kulesigameko sakamuva. Kuzokhunjulwa ukuthi iFrance yabe iyingxenye yamazwe ayesebenza nohulumeni wangaphambili eBurkina Faso ukulwa nontamolukhuni yagcina seyihoxa ngelokuthi ayeneme ngobudlelwane nokubambisana kweBurkina Faso nenkampani yamasosha azikhuzayo iWegner Group nezinze eRussia ekulweni nontamolukhuni . Yingakho emveni kokuba uDamiba uqunjwe phansi kube nemibhikisho kwiNxusa laseFrance ngabalandela uTraoré, ngoba bethi ibicheme naye; ngakolunye uhlangothi umphathi we Wegnar group ukhiphe isitatimende ehalalisela uTraoré.

Akekho ongabhula ukuthi eBurkina Faso kosa kunjani, kepha okungaqinisekiswa wukuthi, lesihlava sokuketulwa kombuso sizokwanda ezwenikazi, ngenxa yezizathu eziningi nokubalwa ukuphokophelela kwamazwe ehlukene aseNyakatho ukufeza izinjongo namaqhingasu awo angahlangene nokwakha izwekazi elinokuthula, nentuthuko.

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