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Lingahle life ngathi: Ingozi yokuqedwa kwezihlalo zabeNguni naboHlanga jikelele
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Lingahle life ngathi: Ingozi yokuqedwa kwezihlalo zabeNguni naboHlanga jikelele

nguMfo waKwaNomajalimane

Emlandweni wemiphakathi nezizwe buthathu ubuholi oselokhu kwathi nhlo buyancintisana. Obenkolo osekwabizwa ngokwamasonto noma amabandla. Obepolitiki nokumelwe ngohulumeni bese kuba khona uBukhosi lobu namuhla obumelwe ngaMakhosi ezizwe neZingonyama. Akukaze kube yimfi hlo ukuthi lezi zinhlaka zontathu ziyabonelana nokuthi ihlale ikhona imizamo yokukheqana kanye nokusebenzisana. ILembe impilo yalo ibibungazwa zolo lokho lituswa phakathi kokunye ngokukwazi ukwakha nokusimamisa uBukhosi obuyinqanawe nokudume umhlaba wonke uZulu. ISILO sakwaDukuza situswa ngokuhlanganisa izizwe senze isizwe, ngokuhlanganisa izinhlanga senze uhlanga.

Okumqoka situswa ngokwakha uhlobo oluthile lokubusa nanamuhla olusalandelwa. Akusona sodwa iSILO saKwaDukuza esingatuswa njengoba nakwezinye iZindlu zabeNguni akhona amagama angabalulwa, emaMpondweni ikhona iNkosi uFaku kaNgqungqushe, kwaXhosa ikhona iNkosi uHintsa, kwaNgwane ikhona iNkosi uSomhlola, uSobhuza nabanye. Umlando woBukhosi umazombezombe. Kukhona lapho kungasoleka khona abafo okungabacindezeli abafi ka nemithetho yokubusa okwakunhloso yayo kwabe kuwukushabalalisa uBukhosi.

baboHlanga. Kumqoka ukuveza ukuthi inhloso kwabe kuwukushabalalisa lobu baboHlanga ngoba okwabo njengamaNgisi bakulondoloza bakhela ngamaqubu aboHlanga cishe kuyo yonke imikhakha yempilo. Ngesikhathi sababusi bamakoloni miningi imithetho eyakhiwayo ukubukela phansi uBukhosi kusuka ekuphathweni komhlaba, ukuthethwa kwamacala, impilo yansukuzonke nokweluswa, kosikonkolo kanye nepolitiki yezomnotho.

Lo ongenhla ngumlando wabacindezeli kepha owesibili yilowo lapho amadodana namadodakazi alabo ababelwisana nabacindezeli sekuyibo abasebenzisa amandla abanawo ukwenza okufanayo noma okungaphezulu kwalokho okwakwenziwa ngababusi bamakoloni. Akuyona imfihlo ukuthi ohulumeni abaholwa ngaboHlanga kwathi bangathatha amandla nje bafuna ukukunqinda amandla kakhulu uBukhosi kunakuqala. Okwabe kubangwa lapha nokusabangwa ngamandla okuxhumana nabantu kanye nepolitiki yezomnotho encike kakhulu enhlabathini.

Esethulweni sakhe esisihloko sithi: Challenges and prospects for traditional leadership in Africa: Towards innovative ideas to enhance African values among the youth in South Africa (2013) isifundiswa uPhilip Iya uthi ngoBukhosi: “Okuxhumanisa uhlelo lolwazi lwendalo, ubuholi bendabuko kanye nezinhlelo zesimiso samaAfrika kungaqondwa kangcono futhi buthakaselwe ngeqiniso elithi ulwazi lwendalo njengoba sidingidile ngenhla, luyisisekelo somgudu noma sokusukuma kuthathwe izinqumo zawo wonke uphakathi wendawo. Akukhathaleki ukuthi umuntu uqhuba ukubusa ngokwendalo noma usebenzisa izinhlelo zesimiso lapho inqubo yokubusa iqinisiwe, noma ngemithetho yendalo elawula leyo nqubo, noma ngenqubo yezomnotho ngokwenhlalo kuthuthukwa, nokunye – konke kuphaswe noma kuncike ekutheni umphakathi uluthatha kanjani lolo lwazi,” kusho yena.

Kwesinye isethulo ngaphansi kwesisihloko esithi: “Colonisers have Conquered far more than just Land” ungoti wepolitiki nosewamukela ubizo lobungoma, uGogo uDungezweni Aubrey Matshiqe ubeka iqiniso elethusayo ngesimiso sepolitiki yaseNingizimu Afrika lapho ethi: “INingizimu Afrika ngeyalabo abayinqoba. Lena yindlela yokuqonda ehlelekile esemqoka kakhulu ukungayinaki ukuphuphutheka ngokuxakile. Lena indlela yokuqonda lapho inhlalo, ezomnotho, ubuhlangaubuhlanga nokunye okudlelanayo kuleli lizwe kuhlelwa ngayo. Yindlela yokuqonda ehlala ingikhumbuza ubungozi bokuba yiningi ePhalamende ngesikhathi niyingcosana kwezomnotho, kwezomhlaba, ezizindeni zolwazi nasekukhiqizeni amasiko, nakwezinye izingxenye zempilo lapho kufanele kuphethuke khona ukuhlonipheka.”

Ubuqiniso balo mbhalo buvela ngezindlela ezahlukene ngesikhathi sethu. Kusuka ngonyaka we-1994 kuze kube 1994 kuze kube yimanje kusobala ukuthi imithetho (leyo emqoka) kanjalo nendlela uBukhosi noHulumeni okubukana ngayo kayingaguquki kuyaphi. Kulabo abangabizwa ngosodemokhrasi abangakholelwa ekuphileni nasekubusweni nguBukhosi, uBukhosi buyisithiyo “entuthukweni” bona abayilethela umphakathi. Kanti futhi osodemokhrasi bakwenza kube sobala ukuthi yibo abasemandleni ngakho izinhlaka zoBukhosi noBukhosi jikelele abazi futhi bamukele lelo qiniso. Ubufakazi balo muzwa busodabeni noma emdonsiswanweni owenzeka buthule othinta uhlaka loBukhosi bukaZulu Ingonyama Trust (obuso bayo kuyi-Ingonyama Trust Board). Lapha osodemokhrasi okunguHulumeni wendawo nowesifundazwe, muva nje nokazwelonke, kabafihli ukuthi ukuba kuya ngabo ngabe kayisekho i-Ingonyama Trust.

Udaba lweZihlalo zabeNguni
Olunye udaba oluveza ukucija kwemikhonto buthule phakathi kukahulumeni noBukhosi wudaba lwamakhosana ezizwe kanye nezihlalo kubeNguni, labo bakwaXhosa, aMampondo noZulu. Esenzweni esahunyushwa ngabathile njengaleso esabe sinehloso enhle nembi, uMengameli uMbeki ngoLwezi wezi-2004 waqoka ikhomishini yabantu abali-12 neyaduma ngokuthi ngekaNhlapho ngenxa yokuholwa nguSolwazi uThandabantu Nhlapho. Igama layo elisemthethweni kwabe kuyiCommission on Traditional Leadership Disputes and Claims. Yize abanye ongoti namanye aMakhosi encoma umsebenzi wekhomishini kepha abanye ikakhulu kubeNguni basola ukuthi yaxova kungenasidingo. Ukusola kulaba kwabe kusekutheni kwathi kulungiswa kwabe sekuqhamuka amathamelangosi nafaka izicelo okwakunhloso yazo kwabe kuwukudunga umlando nokubabela izikhundla.

Phakathi kwaMakhosi aba nemibuzo ngale Khomishini kaNhlapho kwaba yiNkosi uPhathekile Holomisa nowabuza imibuzo emqoka. Phakathi kwale mibuzo wabuza ukuthi: Uma uphenyo seluphothuliwe ngabe luyobumba izizwe lezo noma lizozeqhatha na? Ngabe uphenyo luyoholela ekwamukelweni kobuholi obusha (uma kutholakala kanjalo) wona umphakathi uyoguquka kalula yini wamukele ubuholi obusha? Ukuthi lokhu kuzokwenza kube khona ukuhlinzekwa kwezidingo, ukuthula nokulandelwa komthetho nesimiso sesizwe? Ngesikhathi yethula umbiko wayo iKhomishini kaNhlabo ngowezi-2008 yathi kukhona uBukhosi obuli-12, kubo obuyisi-6 okungathiwa kuneZingonyama noma iZindlovukazi. KubeNguni yavuma iKumkani uBuyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo wabaThembu. Yavuma iKumkani uZwelonke Sigcawu KuMampondo yavuma iKumkani uZanozuko Tyelovuyo Sigcawu. KuZulu savuma iSILO esidala, uMdlokombane. Kusuka ngaleso sikhathi kukhona okuqaphelekayo ngalezi Zihlalo zabeNguni ukuthi zonke sikhuluma nje zinokuxokozela, lapho abeNkosi okuyiNdlunkulu ivukelana iphikisana ngokuthi ngubani ozoba yiNkosana.

Kwabesende likaFaku izinto zibhixene sekwaze kwangenelela nezinkantolo. Lapha umbango uphakathi kwababizwa ngamaMampondo aseNyandeni nalawo okuthiwa ngawaseQaukeni. IKumkani eyavunywa yiKhomishini kaNhlapho yavunywa nayiNkantolo yoMthetho, iKumkani uTyelovuyo Zanozuko iyaphikisana nokukhuluma okuthi kungakhona ongabizwa ngeKumkani (lapha usho iNkosi uMangaliso Ndlovuyezwe Ndamase) yaMampondo aseNyandeni ekubeni yena eyiKumkani yamaMpondo jikelele. Kuyinamuhla umuzi kaFaku uhlukene phakathi.
KwaXhosa yize kusadambile kepha ike yasuka futhi kukholakala ukuthi ayikapheli. Emuva kokukhothama kweKumkani kaXhosa, uMpendulo Zwelonke Sigcawu, Ah! Zwelonke ngowe-2019 kwaba nomsindo njengoba abanye baqoka iNkosana u-Ahlangene Vulikhaya Sigcawu. Leli gama laphikiswa ngamaGcaleka wona akhomba eleNkosi uDerrick Ngwebu njengebamba. Ekugcineni uHulumeni wamukele igama leKumkani uVulikhaya.

Ngisho kunjalo kusekhona umsindo njengoba kukhona abathi kabavumelani nalokho. Kulokhu iKumkani ikhiphe amagama aqinile ithi uBukhosi bukaXhosa buyahlaselwa ngabathile: “Lobu Bukhosi abuhlonishwanga, hhayi kuphela amaXhanti, kodwa nalabo abacabanga ukuthi bangabuthatha lobu Bukhosi. Abanye bazeneze osihlalo ba-Amatshawe eNdlu kaGcaleka besebenzisa amagama asemthethweni oBukhosi. Kukhona udaba olusephephandabeni engalubona ukuthi lubhalwe nguDaliwonga, ephikisa isinqumo esithathwe yiNdlunkulu. Uthi iNdlu yamaRharhabe ayizange itshelwe ngesinqumo. Ufuna ukwahlukanisa abadala namaRharhabe Le Ndlunkulu ingazithathela izinqumo bese itshela amaRharhabe kamumva ukuba yenze isimemezelo njengoBukhosi.”

Yize kunganakekile kakhulu kepha nakhona kubaThembu kukhona ukuzazelana phakathi kweKumkani uBuyelekhaya Dalindyebo nendodana yakhe neyabe ilibamba u-Azenathi Dalindyebo.

KweseLembe ayikavumelani
Kulo nyaka esikuwo kwenzeke okungakaze kucatshangwe kule minyaka engama-50 eyedlule lapho isizwe kanjalo neSihlalo ebesihlonishwa ngokukwazi ukulungisa izinkinga zaso kanye nalezo zezinye izindlu zabeNguni naboHlanga jikelele uZulu naso singena odakeni lokulwa kwaBantwana beNkosi.

Kusuka ekumenyezelweni kwegama loMntwana uMisuzulu njengeNkosana kaZulu nezothatha izihlangu zoMdlokombana kube khona ukungaboni ngasolinye nakho obekundlalelwe ngumbango wegceke lapho omunye woMkaNkosi ephikelele enkantolo ukuyokhuleka ukuba ilamule isimo lapho ethi nguye onamagunya adlula abanye oNdlunkulu. Kuthe kusenjalo kwasuka amazinyane aso iSILO esidala azalwa kwaKhethomthandayo ayocela inkantolo efanayo ukuba inqume ukuthi incwadi yamafa nekhomba ozohlala eSihlalweni njengengekho emthethweni.

Lesi simo sesibuye sabhebhetheleka kakhulu njengoba noHulumeni wesifundazwe oholwa nguKhuzeni usukhiphe umlayelo wokuthi akungaxhaswa lutho njengemikhosi kaZulu kuze kube udaba lombango luyaxazululwa. Lesi senzo sithukuthelise uZulu nosihumushe njengokujezisa abanye eNdlunkulu bathi owaqokwa yiNdlovukazi njengeSILO esisha, uMisuzulu kasimfanele kepha kumele kube ngumnewabo uMntwana uSimakade.

Lo mbango usuhudulele phansi iSihlalo wehlisa nesithunzi sikaZulu emphakathini nasesizweni. Kukhona ukwesaba ukuthi lokhu kungabhubhisa yonke imisebenzi emihle yeSILO esidala yokubumba uZulu neNdlunkulu.

Izimpi zayizolo
Kanti abanye basabela ukuthi izimpi ezindala ISILO esidala esabe sizinqobile zizovuka, abaphikisana neSihlalo bengena ngenxeba njengempethu. Isibonelo ngalokhu sisodabeni lomhlaba nezinye izinhlaka zoBukhosi. Loyo owayenguMengameli wezwe uMnu uKgalema Motlanthe kusaphila iNdlondlo wake wakhomoza uKhongolose ukuba uqede ngamandla aMakhosi manxa kufika ekuphathweni komhlaba. Waye gcizelela kumbiko wakhe othi: Report of High Level Panel on Assesment of Key Legislation and Accelarartion of Fundamental Change owabe uneziphakamiso ezithile mayelana nokulawulwa komhlaba KwaZulu-Natal ngaphansi kwe-Ingonyama Trust. Kulo mhlangano kaKhongolose uMotlanthe esethulweni sakhe akagcinanga nje ngokuchaza lokhu acabanga ukuthi kuyizingqinamba kepha wabe esebeka nalokho yena acabanga ukuthi yisixazululo.

Wathi “uKhongolose awususe umhlaba ezandleni zaMakhosi uwuyise kubantu” waqhubeka wathi: “Abantu babenethemba lokuthi uKhongolose uzobakhulula ekuminyanisweni wuhlelo lwezabelo. Kusobala ukuthi manje thina Khongolose sesithi umhlaba awuyiswe eMakhosini hhayi kubantu,” kusho uMotlanthe.

See Also

Eqhubeka nokugxeka uBukhosi uthe kungamaqabuqabu ukuthola labo abangaziboni kuyibo abanegunya lomhlaba. “Esakuzwa ezithangamini zemiphakathi, ngaphandle kwase-Eastern Cape kubaholi beNdabuko okuyibo bodwa abasazazi ukuthi bayizithunywa zabantu. Abanye bazibiza ngabanikazi bomhlaba,” kusho uMotlanthe.

Kusuka lapho idlana ithule phakathi kwe-Ingonyama Trust, uHulumeni, muva nje, nezinhlangano ezingekho ngaphansi kukaHulumeni. Kunanombono othi ukusithela kweSILO esidala kuzodala isimo lapho kuzobalula ukugugula i-Ingonyama Trust kanye noBukhosi. ElaboHlanga lingakuqinisekisa ukuthi zikhona izinhlelo zikaHulumeni kazwelonke nowesifundazwe “ukubeka Ingonyama Trust endaweni yayo”. Kunohlelo nje lokuqinisekisa ukuthi isandla sayo ezindabeni ezithinta ukwabiwa komhlaba siyafinyezwa. Okunye okucoshwe ngelaboHlanga ngumkhankaso wokuqedela lokhu okwabe kuqaliwe okuwukuqeda ngebhodi eliholwa nguMehluleli uNgwenya osolwa ngabanye kuHulumeni ngokuba “ngulizwi lakhe”.
ElaboHlanga nababili omunye eMnyangweni Kuzwelonke kanye noNgwenya ‘usesimweni esibucayana’ njengoba uMdlokombane engasekho.

Akuyona imfihlo ukuthi iSILO besithanda yena. UMnyango uke wazama ukumgudluza ngesikhathi uDidiza (uNkk uThoko Didiza) ethula ibhodi elisha kepha izinto zabhimba ngoba iSILO sabe singezwa lutho. Kwala ngisho sekusetshenziswa olunye uphenyo olwaluthinta uNgwenya nalapho sageja. ISILO sihambe nje kwakumele kube nomhlangano nowahlehliswa kabili nayilapho uMnyango wawuzozama khona ukubeka izizathu ekuthini kungani kumele kube nokuguquko ku-Ingonyama Trust”.

Lo mthombo ukuqinisekisile ukuthi ubudlelwane bukaNgwenya (wagcizelela ukuthi bakhona abanye uHulumeni angenankinga nabo) abubuhle washo ukuthi angeke amangale uma kuphetha ngokuthi uNgwenya ngandlela thize akhishwe. Ukuguquka noma ukushabalala kwe-Ingonyama Trust kuyobe kuyisenzo sokuqala esenziwa nguHulumeni emuva kokwedlula kweNdlondlo nosekuvele kuhunyushwa ngabathile ukuthi abayobe bekwenza kuyofakazela okwashiyo yiyo isaphila ukuthi sekukhona abalinde ukuba yedlule emhlabeni bese bedumela uZulu neSihlalo. ElaboHlanga lithole ukuthi kuzoba nemihlangano ezobizwa nguNkk uDididza nohulumeni wesifundazwe lapho bezokhuluma ngqo naMakhosi ngaphandle kwe-Ingonyama Trust nokuyoba yisiqalo sokukhulu okuzayo.

Echaza ngobumqoka bomhlaba, Ingonyama Trust neSihlalo usomlando uSolwazi uMaphalala uthi engxoxweni aba nayo nelaboHlanga ngowezi-2015: “UZulu kakweleti muntu ngomhlaba ongaphansi kwe-Ingonyama Trust ngoba yisiqeshana nje okwakuvele kungesakhe.” USolwazi uqhubeke wathi: “Ngemuva kweminyaka emibili, we-1841 nowe-1842, uMbuso wamaNgisi wanqoba amaBhunu ayeqole ingxenye yoMbuso kaZulu eNingizimu yoThukela ngowe-1843. Lapha kwakubangwa indawo kaZulu nokubusa phezu kwakhe, indawo amaNgisi ayibhabhadisa ngokuthi yiKoloni yaseNatal.

“Zonke izizwe zamaZulu ezazikade zibuswa yiziNgonyama oShaka noDingane eningizimu yoThukela, uMnu uTheophilus Sheptsone (uSomtsewu), uNobhala WeziNdaba ZaBantu wancoma ukuthi zakhiswe imizi yazo emeveni, ezintabeni nasemigubaneni. Zakhiswa ezindaweni ezazingakulungele neze ukulinywa nokufuya. Wonke amaZulu enqaba ukuya emeveni adliwa yinhlamvu kwathiwa aduve ngokungemthetho (“squatters”) kodwa ladalwa bamapulazi avundile nalungele imfuyo ayengamamogeni ayizi-3000 ipulazi lomlungu emunye anikezwa amaNgisi namaBhunu nengxenye yomhlaba kaZulu eyaqolwa yabizwa ngokuthi yindawo kaHulumeni (Crown land).”

USolwazi uMaphalala uqhubeka athi: “Zonke izizwe zaMakhosi eningizimu yoThukela noMzinyathi zaphoqwa ukukhanda ojantshi bezitimela, ukutshala amahlathi, nokukhanda imigwaqo ngaphansi kohlelo lwempoqo olwalaziwa ngokuthi yiSibhalo. Bonke ababhalisa abantu ohlelweni lweSibhalo banikezwa ilungelo lokubiza ilobolo lezinkomo ezili-15 nxa amadodakazi abo egana.” Kuchaza uSolwazi.

Ngokusho kukaSolwazi uMaphalala lokhu akugcinanga lapho ngoba nangale kanjalo nangaphambi kwempi yamaKhanda yowe-1906, amaZulu athwala kanzima lapho kwakushaywa khona imithetho eyayiphoqa ukuba uZulu ufuduke emhlabeni okungowakhe. “Umhlaba lo ophethwe yi-Ingonyama Trust namuhla yingxenye nje encane kaZulu nayo okuseyimigubane,” kuphetha uSolwazi uMaphalala. Le ncazelo yabe igoqa ubumqoka bomhlaba ongaphansi koBukhosi nokwexwaya kukaZulu manxa kunokukhuluma okuthi lokhu akuguquke ngandlela thile.

Okusobala yikuthi izigameko ezenzeka kubeNguni neZihlalo zabo, kusuka kulezo zemvelo ezingevinjwe muntu okuwukuguqa kwaMakhosi kuya kumibango ekhona eminye okusobala ukuthi yenziwe kukhomba khona ukuthi iZihlalo zabeNguni zisengcupheni. Ukuthi ukushabalala kwazo kakhulu leso sakwaZulu ebesibukeka sinamandla kungasho ukushabalala kwezinye zaboHlanga kuleli. Lokho okwabe kwenziwa nokwehlula amakoloni kungenzeka lula ngesikhathi sekubusa aboHlanga, abazukulu baMakhosi namafelankosi.

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