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Ulwazi njengelungelo: Lisafelwa iqiniso kwabezindaba
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Ulwazi njengelungelo: Lisafelwa iqiniso kwabezindaba

nguMfo waKwaNomajalimane

Yize amazwe omhlaba amaningi esephila ngaphansi kwedemokhrasi, kwezinye izingxenye izintatheli zisazabalaza


Bambalwa abangaphika ubumqoka kwabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele. Esimweni esejwayelekile abezindaba bangamehlo nezindlebe zomphakathi. Namuhla izakhamuzi ziyazi ngenkohlakalo eyenziwa ngababusi nje kungenxa yabo abezindaba.  Abantu bayazi nje ngokubheduka kwezifo nezibhicongo emazweni ahlukene kungenxa yabo abezindaba. Nase zindaweni zempi lapho kungahambi lutho, abezindaba bona basuke belapho ngoba inhloso kusuke kuyikho ukwazisa. Kuneziwombe nje lapho abanye bebulawa khona benza umsebenzi wabo.  

Ngokombiko wabakwa Reporters Without Boarders (RSF) zingama-50 izintatheli ezibulewe emhlabeni jikelele nyakenye. Okuqashelwe yilo mbiko wukuthi eziningi kulokhu kazifanga emazweni anezimpi kepha zife emazweni azo. Kulokhu ezibulewe zehle nje kancane njengoba ngesikhathi esifanayo ngowezi-2021 kwabulawa ezingama-53. Khona lapho ezinye izintatheli kazisindanga kumkhuhlane lo osubulale inqwaba, ukhuvethe nakhona isosha labe lifela emsebenzini walo.

Izintatheli eziningi ziyabulawa emazweni athathwa ngokuthi ‘aphila ngoxolo’. Ngowezi-2016, ama-58% kwezokwazisa bafela lapho kuliwa khona. Manje bangama-32% abafayo lapho kuliwa khona njengaseSyria, eYemen noma emazweni angenakho ukungqubuzana okusezingeni eliphezulu njengase-Afghanistan nase-Iraq. Ngamanye amazwi ama-68%  abafayo basemazweni ‘athathwa njenganoxolo kunawo wonke yiMexico (ezintatheli eziyisi-8 ezibulewe), e-India (ezine), ePhilippines (ezintathu) naseHonduras (ezintathu).

Uma zingabulawanga izintatheli ziyaboshwa ngezinsolo zokuthi zephule umthetho thizeni. Uma zingaboshwanga ziyaphela umpetshisi, zishaywa ngamaphoyisa. Muva nje eMalawi intatheli uKijimwana Mhango izithole isenkingeni ngesikhathi isedolobheni iLilongwe. Kuthiwa lapha amaphoyisa ayisikhombisa ayithelekele ngemishiza namapayipi. Icala nje bekuyikuthi icele ukuthatha izithombe zawo njengengxenye yombiko ngesimo sokhuvethe ezweni.

Ulwazi njengelungelo

Umsebenzi wabezindaba ongukusabalalisa ulwazi uthathwa njengelungelo elimqoka. Ngaphansi kuka-Article 19 we-Universal Declaration of Human Rights uthi, wonke umuntu unelungelo lokufuna nokuthola izindaba futhi aveze novo lwakhe. Phezu kwalesi siqinisekiso akhona amazwe akushaya indiva konke lokhu. 

Ngokombiko weCommittee for the Protection of Journalist (CPJ) kunamazwe alishumi ahamba phambili ekungavukeleni abezindaba. Kula mazwe kubalwa: i-Eritrea, iNorth Korea, iTurkmenistan, iSaudi Arabia, iChina, iVietnam, i-Iran, i-Equatoriaal iGuinea, iBelarus neCuba. Ngokwalo mbiko, lawa mazwe alishumi adunga izinga lamazawe ngokungavumeli noma ngokunqinda kakhulu ezokwazisa ezizimele abuye asabise izintatheli ngokuzigquma emajele ezithulisa, zihlala ziqashiwe ngokwedijithali noma ngokunye kokuthwebula futhi zibuye zihlukunyezwe ngandlela thizeni. Ukunqindwa kwenzeka kakhulu e-Eritrea, eNorth Korea naseTurkmenistan lapho ezokwazisa ziwumlomo wombuso  futhi ubuntatheli obuzimele benzelwa ekudingisweni. Izintatheli ezimbalwa zangaphandle ezivunyelwe ukungena zihlala ziqashwe ngolokhozi.

Amanye amazwe enza lo mkhuba asebenzisa amaqhinga asobala njengokuhlukumeza nokubopha kanye nokuqashwa okunzulu kubalwa nokuthulisa ezokwazisa ezizimele. ISaudi Arabia, iChina, iVietnam, ne-Iran ngamanye asebenzisa ukunqinda, ukubopha nokuhlukumeza izintatheli nemindeni yazo ebe eqapha ngokwedijithali futhi enqinda i-inthanethi nezinkundla zokuxhumana.

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Kukhona umuzwa wokuthi iNingizimu Afrika ingcono noma kayikho sampela kumazwe ahlukumeza nanqinda ukusatshalaliswa kwezindaba. Umbono onjalo uliqiniso ngakolunye uhlangothi kepha ngakolunye kunganenye incazelo. Yebo abezindaba kuleli bayabika ngabaholi namaqembu nangenkohlakalo. Yebo nemithetho yezwe iyabavikela kepha ukuhlukunyezwa ngokomphefumulo nakho kukhona. 

Abanye uma bebhale udaba bachashwa ngezinhlaba. Kulokhu kuchashwa ngezinhlamba nokwenzeka ezinkundleni zokuxhumana nakanjani kudalela amazinyo abushelelezi intatheli leyo noma inkampani eyisebenzelayo. Kukhona nokukhuluma okuthi enye yezinto eyenza ‘zithukwe’noma zisolwe izintatheli kuleli yindlela ezibika ngokuchema ngayo. Yonke le minyaka abezindaba bebekuphika lokhu kepha okuvela ezithangamini ezahlukene kuyakufakazela ukuthi bakhona abathile abangathembekile kwabezindaba. 

Bukhona nje ubufakazi bokuthi ezinye izinkampani zikhokhelwa wuPhiko Lwezinhloli zakuleli. Bukhona obenzintatheli eziphathiswa okuthile ukuze zibhale ngokwenzelela kanye nokuhlukumezeka kwezintatheli nokwenziwa ngabaphathi bezinkampani abaziphoqa ukuba zibhale ngendlela ethize. 

Kanti olunye uswazi izintatheli nezinkampani ezishaywa ngalo uma sezibika ngokweqile wukuncishwa izikhangiso kunikwe laba abathobela umthetho.  Zonke lezi zimo ezingenhla zinqinda ilungelo lokugeleza kolwazi. Uma kubulawa, kuboshwa intatheli kusho ukungabi bikho kolwazi. Uma iphoqwa ngabaphathi ukuba ibhale ngendlela ethize kusasho into efanayo nokufakazela khona ukuthi izintatheli nobuntatheli busaqhubeka nokubulawa ngandlela thize.

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