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Ukugoma kuhlolwa kuqala bese kwedluliselwa emphakathini
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Ukugoma kuhlolwa kuqala bese kwedluliselwa emphakathini

nguDkt uRosie Mgqibisa

Kwenziwa isiqiniseko sokuthi umgomo uphephile futhi usesimweni esifanele ukuthi ungasetshenziswa kubantu


Ukugoma indlela esebenzayo yokuvikela abantu ezifweni ezinobungozi. Kunciphisa ubungozi bokungenwa yisifo ngokuthi usebenze nezivikeli zemvelo ezisemzimbeni ukwakha ukuvikeleka. Umgomo uqeqesha amasosha omzimba wakho (okuyiwo alwa nezifo emzimbeni) ukwakha izakhamzimba ezilwa nezifo ngendlela efanayo umzimba wakho ongabhekana ngayo uma usutheleleke ngesifo. 

Uma umuntu esethole umgomo kwakhiqizeka nezakhamzimba amasosha omzimba abe esekwazi ukukhumbula isifo. Lokhu kungaholela ekutheni umuntu ogonyiwe athole ukuvikeleka esifweni iminyaka eminingi noma impilo yakhe yonke. Kubalulekile ukukubalula kuthi akusiyona yonke imigomo ehlala ingunaphakade.Imigomo isibekhona kusukela ngekhulunyaka le-18, kwaqala ngokuthi kwakhiwe owesimungumungwane ngowe-1796. Lo mgomo wakhiwa kusetshenziswa amaqhubu amancane anoketshezi aba sesikhumbeni. Miningi imigudu yoguquko okwadlulwa kuyo ngesikhathi kwakhiwa lo mgomo eminyakeni engama-200 okwaholela ekunqotshweni kwesimungumungwane ngowe-1980.

Ngowe-1885 omunye umgomo wamarabi wakhiwa owahlenga impilo yabantu abaningi. Njengamanje ziningi izinhlobo zemigomo ezikhona yezifo ezingaphezulu kwezingama-20 ezifana nediphtheria, itetanus, i-anthrax, ikholera, iplague, uhudo, ufuba, uvendle, isimungumungwana, uzagiga, irubella, iHPV nezinye. 

Umgomo awuvikeli kuphela umuntu osewutholile kodwa nalabo abaseduze kwakhe. Kunabantu abangavumelekile ukuthola umgomo ngenxa yezigulo zabo kodwa abangasizakala ngomgomo woquqaba (herd immunity). Lapha kusuke kukhulunywa ngengxenye ethile yomphakathi egonywa bese kuthi wonke umphakathi uzuze kulokho. 

Maqondana nokhuvethe kunezinkulumo zokuthi kudingeka okungenani ukuthi kugonywe amalungu omphakathi angamaphesenti angama-70 ukuze abantu bavikeleke nakuba lokhu kungenasiqiniseko.  Le ndlela yokugoma ibukeka isebenza kangcono ezifweni ezigwemeka ngomgomo ezithelelana ngokusuka kumuntu ziya komunye. 

Umgomo uyingxenye ebalulekile yezempilo futhi ubalulekile ekugwemeni nasekulawuleni ukubheduka kwezifo. Kubikwa ukuthi ukugoma kuholela ekugwemekeni kokufa kwabantu abafinyelela kuzigidi ezintathu ngonyaka.

Yini umgomo?

Lokhu ukulungiselela okunqanda igciwane elakha isifo esibanga izintwanyana eziphilayo. Yakhiwa yilokhu:

  • Ukuthithibalisa igciwane eliphilayo ukuze lingadali ukugula.
  • Ukubulala noma ukuthithibalisa izilwanyana nona amagciwane usebenzisa ukushisa noma amakhemikhali. Lokhu kubulala amandla egciwane kodwa ubolana buhlale bukhona ukuze amasosha omzimba ezohlala ekwazi ukulibona. 
  • Ubuchwepheshe obusha bokuhlinzeka umgomo sebakhiwe njengomgomo weRNA lapho umthombo wokwakheka kwengxenye ethile yegciwane usetshenziswa ukuvuselela amandla okulwa nesifo. 

Umgomo wokuthithibalisa igciwane kujwayele ukuthi ube namandla futhi uhlala isikhathi eside kanti olunye uhlobo lubuye ludinge ukufakwa umfutho.  Ngenxa yokuthi umgomo unqanda kuphela amagciwane noma amabhakitheriya asebulewe okanye athithibalisiwe, awuzidali izifo noma ubungozi. 

Wakhiwe ngani umgomo?

Ama-antigen: Lolu uhlobo lwegciwane noma ibhakitheriya oselubulewe noma oluthithibalisiwe oluqeqesha imizimba yethu ukuba ikwazi ukubona futhi ilwe nesifo uma umuntu ephinda ehlangabezana naso. Ama-adjuvant asiza ukusimamisa amasosha omzimba okusho ukuthi asiza umgomo ukuthi usebenze kangcono.

Amapreservative aqinisekisa ukuthi umgomo uhlala usebenza. Amastabiliser avikela umgomo ngesikhathi ugciniwe noma uthuthelwa kwenye indawo.

See Also

Wakhiwa kanjani umgomo?

Njengayo yonke imithi, lonke uhlobo lomgomo kumele ludlule esigabeni sokuhlolisiswa ukuqinisekisa ukuthi uphephile ngaphambi kokuba unikwe abantu. Umgomo omusha ongasetshenziswa uqale uhlolwe ezilwaneni ukubheka ukuphepha kwawo nezinga lawo lokugwema isifo. Uma kutholakala ukuthi uphephile ezilwaneni nokuthi ungasebenza, ube usuhlolwa kubantu. Lokhu kwenziwa ngezigaba. 

  • Esokuqala: Umgomo unikwa amavolontiya ambalwa ukubheka ukuphepha kwawo nokuqinisekisa ukuthi uyakwazi ukulwa nezifo nokuthola isikali esingasetshenziswa. 
  • Esesibili: Kujwayele ukuthi unikwe amakhulu amavolontiya aqashwa ngeso lokhozi ukubheka kuthi awubi nayo imiphumela emibi emva kokuwusebenzisa. Lokhu kuvumela abacwaningi ukuthi baqhubeke nokubheka ukuthi ngabe uyakwazi yini ukulwa nezifo. Amavolontiya aye abiwe ngamaqoqo amabili, elinye liyanikwa umgomo kanti elinye alinikwa. Lokhu kwenzela ukuthi kuqhathaniswe la maqoqo ukuze abacwaningi bezokwazi ukufinyelela esinqumweni ngomgomo.
  • Esesithathu: Umgomo nikwa izinkulungwane zamavolontiya ahlukaniswe amaqoqo amabili  – elithola umgomo nelingawutholi. Ulwazi olutholakala kula maqoqo luyaqhathaniswa ukubona ukuthi ngabe umgomo uphephile futhi uyasebenza ukulwa nesifo owakhelwe ukusivika.
  • Uma ukuhlolwa sekuphothuliwe nemiphumela isikhona, ezinye izinyathelo ziyathathwa ukubuyekeza kahle lonke ulwazi olukhona ngokuphepha nokusebenza kahle kwawo ngokwezinhlaka ezigunyaza amakhambi. Kuba emuva kwalesi sigaba lapho umgomo usungaqala ukhiqizwe.

Banikwa kanjani abantu umgomo?

Imigomo eminingi iba umjovo kodwa eminye ifakwa emlonyeni noma ifuthwe emakhaleni. 

Uphephile umgomo?

Njengawo wonke amakhambi okwelapha, umgomo ungaba nokungaphathani kahle emveni kokuwuthola okungabanga phakathi kokunye umkhuhlane, ubuhlungu noma ibala elibomvu lapho okujovwe khona. Lokhu kujwayele ukwelapheka futhi kuyaziphelela esikhathini esiyizinsukwana. Ukungaphatheki kahle isikhathi eside noma okunamandla akujwayelekile.

Ukuphepha komgomo kuhlale kuqashwe ngelokhozi ukukwazi ukubona okungagulisa owusebenzisile okwaziwayo nokungaziwa. Ukubaluleka kokwenza ucwaningo kusuke kuwukuqinisekisa ukuthi umgomo uhloliwe kubantu ngaphambi kokuba usatshalaliswe. Nangemuva kokusatshalaliswa, ukuwuqapha kubalulekile ukuze kubonakale okungagulisa owusebenzisile (ikakhulukazi lokho okubucayi) okungazange kubonakale ngesikhathi sokuhlolwa kwawo. 

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