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USihlalo omusha we-AU nezinhlelo zezomnotho
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USihlalo omusha we-AU nezinhlelo zezomnotho

Gugulethu Xaba

UMengameli wakuleli uMnu uCyril Ramaphosa uthweswe umthwalo obalulekile kakhulu inhlangano ye- African Union. Ngomhla ziyisi-9 kuNhlolanja, uye wathatha izintambo zokuba uSihlalo wezwekazi i-Afrika. Uthathe izintambo ebezisuka kuMengameli wase-Egypt uMnu u-Abdel Fattah El-Sisi obesebambe ihlandla elilodwa njengokoMthethosisekelo we-African Union. Le nhlangano enamazwe angama-55, njalo inikezela ukuphathwa kwayo kuMengameli wezwe ngalinye ngesikhathi esithile ngokushintshashintshana. Kule ngqungquthela ebibanjelwe ezweni e-Ethiopia, nebihanjelwe nayilowo owake waba nguSihlalo we-AU ngowezi-2002 nowake waba nguMengameli kuleli, uMnu uThabo Mbeki. URamaphosa wethule inkulumo ebenohlonze kakhulu ngesimo sezwekazi i-Afrika lapha abeke nezinto okumele zenziwe ngamazwe onke ase-Afrika ukuthuthukisa ezomnotho. Okuhle ngukuthi, yize i-Afrika isenamathizethize ngaphansi kohlelo lwe-African Union, kepha wonke amazwe asezibandakanyile nohlelo lwe-African Union ukuze akwazi ukulekelelana maqondana nokuphathwa ngendlela yilelo nalelo lizwe.

Sizoke sibheke izinto ezimbalwa phakathi kweziningana azibalulile uSihlalo omusha we-AU. Kube wudaba okokuqala oluthinta isivumelwano sokuhwebelana kwamazwe ase-Afrika esibizwa nge-African Continental Free Trade Area (ACFTA). Kulokhu uveze ubumqoka bokuthi amazwe ase-Afrika angazithuthukisa kanjani ukuze abambe iqhaza elibonakalayo phakathi kwamazwe omhlaba. Uma singake sibheke ukuthi i-ACFTA yenzeka phakathi kwaziphi izimpawu e-Afrika, singabala lezi ezilandelayo. Yenzeka ngesikhathi lapho i-Afrika nabantu bayo bekhula ngesikhulu isivinini. Eminyakeni engama-30 ezayo, izinkomba zithi inani labantu base-Afrika lingase liphindwe kabili kunelamanje. Kumanje abantu base-Afrika balinganiselwa ezigidigidini ezingu-1.25. Ukuthi uma ngabe sebeyizigidigidi ezi-2.5 eminyakeni engama-30 ezayo, kusho isibalo esikhulu. Kuphinde kuchaze ukuthi oyedwa kwabane abantu emhlabeni uzobe evela kuleli lizwekazi. Kanjalo nomthamo wezomnotho uzocishe ulinganiselwe kosigidintathu abathathu kusuka kwababili bamadollar ase-USA.

Ukwanda kwabantu base-Africa kusho ukwanda kwamathuba amakhulu kwezomnotho. Kubuye kusho ukwanda kwabantu abazodinga ukuqashwa kwazise yi- Afrika esahamba phambili ngokuba nabantu abaningi abasebancane. Imibiko yenhlangano yamazwe onke omhlaba i-United Nations, icacisa kabanzi ngokuthi amazwe amaningi ikakhulu ase-Europe nase-Asia inani labantu abazalwayo kuwo liyancipha kunokuthi likhule. Lapha singabheka amazwe amaphakathi neMpumalanga ne- Europe, lapho eminyakeni elishumi edlule, abantu babelinganiselwa ezigidini ezingama-300, okumanje sebelinganiselwe ezigidiniezingama-285. Kanjalo nasemazweni afana nelaseJapan ngonyaka wezi-2010 bebelinganiselwa ezigidini ezili-128 abantu, kuyimanje ngowezi-2020 sebelinganiselwa ezigidini ezili-126 abantu bakhona. Akuyikhona nje ukuthi isibalo sala mazwe asisakhuli, kepha kwentuleka nabantu abasha kwazise nabakhona badala ngeminyaka.

Uthinte kakhulu futhi ngobumqoka bokukwazi ukusebenzisa izinto enazo i-Afrika ezifana nomhlabathi ononile kakhulu emhlabeni. Wabala futhi nobumqoka bokwenza izimbiwa nazo zonke izinto ezihambisana namagugu e-Afrika ukuthi kumele zisize ama-Afrika. Phela lesi sibusiso se-Afrika sesaphenduka isiqalekiso ngenxa yamagovu abaholi abasebenzisana namazwe omhlaba afi sa ukugcina i-Afrika isebumnyameni baphakade. Uma singake sibuke ezinye zezivumelwano ezithi mazifane futhi zibe zihambisana nalesi sama-Afrika se-AfCFTA, singabheka ezilandelayo. Esase-Europe esibizwa nge-European Free Trade Association (EFTA) kanjalo nesasenhla namazwe amaMelikana esibizwa ngeNorth American Free Trade Area (NAFTA). Yize zikhona eziningi emhlabeni, kepha yilezi ezidume kakhulu. Okubalulekayo ngesezwekazi i-Afrika ukuthi singesikhulukazi emhlabeni. Yize kungakabiphi ngalesi sivumelwano, kepha silethela amazwe ekade ezitika nge-Afrika ingebhe, kwazise ukubumbana kwama-Afrika kuwalethela isimo la angase azithole engasakwazi ukuzuza ngendlela yangaphambilini, yobuqili. Kuzokhumbuleka ukuthi amazwe ase- Afrika ahlukaniseke izigaba eziningana ngenxa yesimo senqubo yengcindezelo yangaphambilini.

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Kulawa ikakhulu abizwa ngamazwe e-Afranchophone, asacindezeleke kakhulu kwazise ulawulo lwawo lusaphethwe eFrance. Okunye akubalulile uSihlalo kube yiphupho le-Afrika lonyaka wezi- 2063, ngokomqingo owaziwa nge- Agenda 2063. Kulo mqingo okumele ufezekiswe yizinhlaka ezifana ne- AfCFTA kuzoqinisekiswa ukwakhiwa kwengqalasizinda efana nezemigwaqo, ojantshi bezitimela okumele mabakwazi ukuthwala izimphahla zisuka kwelinye izwe ziya kwelinye. Kanjalo nokuhamba okungenazithiyo phakathi kwama- Afrika ngaphandle kwemingcele. Kanjalo nemifula okumele mayikwazi ukusebenziseka njengeziphehlimandla zikagesi ukuze zikhanyisele amazwe ase- Afrika. Ubumqoka bobuholi be-Afrika kulokhu ukuthi leli lizwe iNingizimu Afrika yilo elithuthuke cishe ukuwedlula wonke amazwe e-Afrika. Kanjalo amazwe amaningi aqoma ukubheka afunde endleleni iNingizimu Afrika ethuthuka ngayo kunokubheka kakhulu kwawaphesheya. Yingakho iNingizimu Afrika kumele ithathe ithuba iqinisekise ukuthi ihola ngobuqotho ibe futhi isiza abantu bayo nabo ukuthi bangene eminothweni ehlukahlukene yezwekazi i-Afrika.

Nasekukwazini ukuqhuba uhlelo olubizwa ngePresidential Infrastructure Champion Initiative, enye yezinto ayibalule njengezokwazi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi imisebenzi emikhulu ehlelwe emazingeni amakhulu ohulumeni iyenzeka, ukuze izokwazi ukufukula zonke izinhla zezeminotho iyafukuleka. Ukuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zabesifazane kanjalo nohlelo lwesigaba sesine sezokuthuthukisa izimboni nomnotho, futhi esihambisana nokwakhiwa kwesizinda se-Artifi cial Intelligence, yizinto uSihlalo omusha azibophezele kuzona.

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