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UKhongolose usungulwe emva kwendaba seliqoneliwe
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UKhongolose usungulwe emva kwendaba seliqoneliwe

Umbhali u-Andre Odendaal, wasibhalela amagama abantu ababemsizile ekuqopheni umlando wencwadi,The Founders: The Origins of the ANC and the struggle for democracy. Esahlukweni sokuqala esibizwa ngokuthi: The Crucible of Colonialism, esiqala ekhasini lesi-3 kuya ekhasini le-13, nezinye izahluko ngokwenzeka eNingizimu Afrika,e-Afrika namanye amazwe kuze kube manje.

Wasibekala ekhasini lesi-3, ukuthi inhlangano i-African National Congress noma iSouth African Native National Congress, njengoba yayiqale ibizwa kanjalo, yasunguleka ngenkathi yesibaya sokuqonelwa ekuqaleni kweminyaka yekhulunyaka le-19.

Ngaleso sikhathi,imibuso yase-Europe yayisinqobile futhi isiqonekile ingxenye eningi yomhlaba amakhulunyaka eminyaka eyisihlanu. Kulelo hlelonsebenzo, abantu bendabuko base benqotshiwe, begqilaziwe, sebephuciwe umhlaba wabo nenkululeko, ngisho ezindaweni sebeqothiwe, egameni le mpucuzeko nentuthuko.

Lolo hlelonsebenzo lwempoqo, lwavunyelwa ngokwemicabangonto yobuzwe futhi kwakuchazwa njengokwakuvunyelwa ngokwenkolo, kwaqhutshwa ngokwezimiso zezimo ezindaweni ezaziqonelwe futhi zaba yingxenye yempilo eyodwa eyayisiphethwe ngokobuqonelo.

Waqhubeka ekhasini le-4 wathi, namuhla, kule nkathi uhlelo emhlabeni wonkana lwezepolitiki nolwezomnotho selwaguqulwa ngabase-Europe  nezizizukulwane zabo. Nsukuzonke impilo yethu seyibukeka isibhajwe kunoxhaka bemithombo yezindaba, ezifika ngokuphazima kweso nobunzululwane kulo mhlaba wovezolwazi oluthunyelwe ngokomkhathi, silokhu sitshengiswa, sibukiswa, bukhona kuhlaselwa amazwe okwaqala nge-Iraq ne-Afghanistan kuya eLibya.

Bese eqhubeka esicakulela ukuthi,kwaqalwa amaSpanish namaPortuguese ngezindlela zokuyohlola nokuqamba ngeminyaka yowe-1400,baqonela amazwe namazwekazi ngokuhleliwe bawaguqula ubumo bawo,babangokwabantu base-Europe.

Wasicaphunela u-Andre ngombhalo kaDavid Landes osihloko sithi :The wealth and poverty of Nations. Why some are so rich and some are so poor, ukuthi i-Europe yasebenzisa amaqhinga okuzungeza wonke umhlaba ngobuchwepheshe babo obabuphezulu, base benakho konke kokubulala kwasani.

Engangokuthi inani lamaNdiya aseMexico ayengamaphesenti ayengama-98, kwabulawa abantu (amaNdiya) ababengaphezu kwezigidi ezazingama-20,ngumuntu omhlophe, ngezinto afika nazo okwakuyizifo ingxibongo, imfiva nokunye okwakwehlukene. 

Aqhubeke uDavid ngokuthi kwakuyizigidi ezazingama-20 zama-Afrika ezathunjwa e-Afrika, zayiswa ukuyotshala umoba nokotini kwamanye amazwe, kulolo hambo lwasolwandle kwafa endleleni ingxenye. Kwazothi ngowe-1800, imikhumbi yaseBritain eyayingamakhulu ayeyisi-5, kwakuhlanganiswe inani lemikhumbi yohwebo yase-Britain, okwakunezigqila ezaziyolima amasimu eCaribbean okwakuyiphesenti lama-80 lomkhiqizo othunyelwe eBritain.

Ngaleso sikhathi abaseBritain babulala izindlovu ezazingama-75 wezinkulungwane minyaka yonke,nokwakuwumthamo wekhulu elalilinye lamazinyo ezindlovu ayethunyelwa eBritain, njengengxenye yeBritain yokuhweba ne-Afrika.

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Leso sihluku esenziwa sentuthuko, senza omunye wosomlando wacaphunwa ethi: “Ebukhazikhazini eyayizibona isiyibona i-England, izandla zabase-England zazinamachaphazelo egazi lama-Afrika,” ephetha uDavid.

Aqhubeke u-Andre ngokuthi,ngekhulunyaka le-19, kwavela imibuso eyayinamandla okwakuyizizwe ezazilandelwa yizinguquko zokwenza izinto kabusha bobuchwepheshe obusheshayo bezimboni. Kwaba nokuphathwa okwakukusha kwemibuso yaMakhosi ngeminye imibuso yase-Europe ngokucazelana i-Afrika.

Anabe ekhasini lesi-5 ngokuthi, ngekhulunyaka le-19, yadlondlobala iBritain yayizwe elalingaphikiswa emhlabeni  jikelele,yayiphethe i-India ngentende yesandla yayifanisa negolide. Yayilawula inqwaba yamazwe eyayiwaqonelile nawayesencike kuyona  emhlabeni jikelele.

Kwabalula ukusabalala ngenxa yobuchwepheshe  obabuphambili obenza iBritain yaba isizwe emhlabeni esasesibusebenzisa emhlabeni. Yayoqhutshwa ukulangazela isimomoya sepolitiki nokufuna izindawo ezazizintsha zokuhweba kanye nemikhiqizo eyayisemisha.

Kwaqhubeka nokwanda ubuqonelo entshonalanga yase-America bezwekazi nobabuholwa yicebo ababelazisa lokunqoba obabubuhle. Emva kokutholakala kwegolide eCalifornia ngowe-1849, kwanobumbano olwasabalala ngomzila owodwa, kwayogcina emngceleni iPacific.

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