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Kwephulwe isivumelwano sowe-1991 ngeWestern Sahara

nguSenzo Ngubane

I-African Union ne-United Nations bafuna ukuthi iMorocco nePolisario Front babambe izingxoxo zokulungisa isimo 


Ngenkathi kusabanjwe ongezansi futhi kusacutshungulwa ukuthi lo mlilo osuqubuke e-Ethiopia ungabhulwa kanjani. Izwekazi seliphinde lizithola libhekene nelinye iqubula enyakatho ne-Afrika, phakathi kweMorocco kanye neqembu iPolisario Front. Mhla zili-13 kuLwezi kuvele imibiko yokuthi iMorocco seyigadlile kuPolisario Front, eWestern Sahara, nokuyisinyathelo esiphambene nesivumelwano sangaphambilini. 

Umlando ofingqiwe ngodaba lwaseWestern Sahara ubalulekile ukuze kuzwakale kahle lokhu okwenzekayo eNyakatho Afrika. Ngowe-1991 kwaba nesivumelwano sikamaluju phakathi kukaHulumeni waseMorocco kanye neqembu iPolisario Front, nesaqeda impi yombango eyabe isithathe iminyaka eyevile kweli-15. Ngamafuphi, le mpi yaqala emveni kokuba iPolisario Front yaphakamisa ukuthi isifundazwe esiyingxenye yeMorocco nesibizwa ngeWestern Sahara, kumele kube yizwe elizimele. 

Ngokwalesi sivumelwano, la maqembu omabili azibophezela ekutheni angeke esahlaselana, nokwaba yisinyathelo esibalulekile ngaleyo minyaka. Nakanjalo, noma ngabe eyenkululeko yeWestern Sahara ingakafezeki, besekuphele iminyaka engama-21 lesi sibophezelo phakathi kwala maqembu sisamile, nobekuthathwa njengesinye sesibonelo sokuthi i-Afrika iyakwazi ukuzakhela uxolo nokuthula. Lokhu kuzithiba kwala maqembu kwakuncomeka e-Afrika yonkana ngenxa yokuthi sekwejwayelekile ukuthi izivumelwano zikamaluju kwezinye izifunda namazwe ezwenikazi zishaywe indiva. Kodwa, le njabulo ishabalele ngeledlule emveni kokuba iPolisario Front igxeke iMorocco ngokwephula isivumelwano, yase nayo ifunga igomela ithi angeke isazibophezela nesivumelwano sangaphambilini sesichithiwe. 

Ingqikithi yesivumelwano kwabe kuwukusungulwa ‘komngcele’ owawuzohlukanisa amasotsha aseMorocco kanye nezidlamlilo zePolisario Front. Kwavunyelwana ngokuthi ‘lo mngcele wokuthula’ uyoqashwa yi-UN ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi akekho phakathi kwala maqembu owephula isivumelwano ngokuthi eqele ngaphesheya ahlasele elinye. 

Isizathu esidale ukuba namuhla kukhulunywe ngempi eNyakatho Afrika siphatha eyomnotho weMorocco, kanye nezinjongo zePolisario Front ukukhulula iWestern Sahara. Ukuze kuzwakale kahle osekwenzekile incazelo ngokulawulwa kweWestern Sahara ibalulekile. Mhlazane kuvunyelwana ngowe-1991, iMorocco yabe ilawula amaphesenti angama-80 omhlaba eWestern Sahara, okubalwa yonke indawo engasogwini kepha ngaphandle kwedolobha iGuergarat kanye nezifunda lapho kumbiwa khona ifosifethi, bese kuthi iPolisario Front ilawula umhlaba ongasemngceleni we-Algeria noseningizimu ehlanganisa iMorocco neMauritania.

Besekuphele amasonto amane kunemibhikisho yezakhamuzi nabeseki bePolisario Front ebiyenzeka emgwaqeni osendaweni ebizwa ngeGuerguerat maduzane neMauritania newumgudu obalulekile kwezohwebo phakathi kweMorocco namanye amazwe. Imikhiqizo nempahla eningi ephumayo nengenayo eMorocco eya nesuka emazweni aseningizimu nezwe ayinawo omunye umgudu ngaphandle kokuti idlule eGuerguerat. 

Ngasohlangothini lwePolisario Front izikhamuzi bezibhikishela ukuthi iMorocco ingaqhubeki nokusebenzisa lo mgudu ngoba usendaweni eyingxenye yalezo eziqashwe yi-UN, nokuthi kudedelwe iziboshwa zezombusazwe zaseWestern Sahara ezisemajele aseMorocco. Le mibhikisho ibisibambe ngobhongwane umnotho waseMorocco ngenxa yesiminyaminya eGuerguerat samaloli athwala impahla engakwazi ukuphuma nemikhiqizo eya kwamanye amazwe. 

See Also
Alupheli uzungu olwakhelwa elaseDemocratic Republic of Congo

Ngokubona ukuthi ukuqhubeka kwale mibhikiso kuyayiguqisa kwezohwebo, iMorocco igcine inquma ukuyiphaka ngokuthumela amasotsha abalelwa e-1 000 ephelezwa yizimoto zempi ezingama-200. Ngakolwayo uhlangonti iPolisario Front ithe lesi sinyathelo seMorocco sephula imigomo yesivumelwano sowe-1991 ukuthi kungahlaselwana. 

Lesi sigameko sesidale inkombankombane phakathi kweMorocco neWestern Sahara, ingxoxompikiswano emazweni ehlukene ngokuthi ubani phakathi kwala maqembu amabili okumele asolwe ngalesi simo esibucayi esesiqalile, nokuthi sisombululo sini esingagwema ukuthi isimo sibuyele empini ‘eyaqedwa’ ngowe-1991. 

I-African Union (AU) ibambisene ne-United Nations (UN) sebephakamise ukuthi iMorocco nePolisario Front babambe izingxoxo ukuze kulungiswe lesi simo. Kodwa kuyadumaza ukuthi lezi zinhlangano zisehluleka ukubhekana ngqo nomsuka walesi sigameko okuwukwehluleka kwazo ukuqinisekisa ukuthi inhlolovo ngekusasa leWestern Sahara, nokumele inqume ukuthi leli yizwe elizimele noma liyingxenye yeMorocco, ibanjwe. 

Noma lezi zinhlangano zingaphumelela ukunxenxa la maqembu omabili ukuthi abuyele ekuhlonipheni isivumelwano sikamaluju sangaphambilini, inqobo nje uma bengakabhekani ngokuneqiniso nobulungiswa nodaba lwenhlolovo akunasiqiniseko sokuthi lezi zigameko zangeledlule angeke ziphinde zenzeke. 

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