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Uyolucima ngani unakane aluqale eTigray uNdunankulu wase-Ethiopia?

nguSenzo Ngubane

Isinqumo esithathwa uHulumeni oholwa uNdunankulu u-Abiy Ahmed sokugasela isifundazwe iTigray mhla zizine kuLwezi nesesidale ukuthi amasotsha ase-Ethiopia abhekane ngqo neqembu elibizwa ngeTigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), siyoba undabuzekwayo emlandweni wezepolitiki e-Afrika yonkana. Akukapheli amasonto amabili le mpi iqalile, amakhulu abantu okubikwa ukuthi sebeshonile kanti sebebalelwa kuzinkulunganwe ezingama 27 asebebhance eSudan. 

 Lesi sinqumo asehlukile nokuthi uHulumeni wase-Ethiopia uthinte unakane okungase uhluleke ukulucima nolungase lubhebhethekele kwezinye izifundazwe ezweni luphinde lukapakele nasemazweni angomakhelwane. Ukuze kucace ukuthi kungani sithi lolu unakane okoba nzima ukulicima ake sinabe kabanzi ngalesi sifundazwe iTigray, ngomlando neqhaza leTPLF e-Ethiopia kanye nezinye izingqinamba ezivele zikhona ezweni. 

Ngaphambi kokungena odabeni, kubalulekile ukubeka okubili ngaleli zwe nokubaluleka kwalo e-Afrika, okwenza ukuthi impi enjenga lena kube ngekhubaza imiphefumulo eminingi. Okokuqala ukuthi inani labantu base-Ethiopia libalelwa ezigidini ezili-110, nokuyenza ibe ngelesibili emazweni anabantu abaningi e-Afrika emveni kweNigeria. 

Kuleli nani zibalelwa ema-80 izizwe ezahlukene zokudabuka e-Ethiopia nokuthi uma kubhekwa ezinohlonze kwezepolitiki yisizwe sama-Oromo ama-Amhara, amaSomali, bese kuba amaTigrian. Ukuqonda umlando walezi zizwe ezingaka ezahlukene kubalulekile ngoba ubudlelwano phakathi kwazo nokuhlalisana ngokuthula kungenye yezinto ezibalulekile kuleli lizwe. Yingakho iqembu elalibusa phambilini i-Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) lakwenza inqubomgomo yalo ukuthi libumbe umfelandawonye wamaqembu azimele ayehlanganisa lezi zizwe, yaphinde yakhanda inqubo yedemokhrasi lapho ohulumeni basemakhaya nezifunda babenamandla azwakalayo okuzilawula ebe eyingxenye ye-Ethiopia.

ITPLF ibaluleke kakhulu emlandweni wezepolitiki e-Ethiopia njengoba yabe iyingxenye ye-EPRDF. Kulo mfelandawonye, iTPLF kwabe kuyiyo eyaziwa njengeqembu elisemqoka ngezizathu ezimbili. Esokuqala, yiyo eyayinabaholi ababamba iqhaza elikhulu emizabalazweni eyagcina iphumelele – ngowe-1991 – yokuqumba phansi uHulumeni wangaphambili owawuholwa untamo iqinile uMengistu Haile Mariam. Leli qhaza eyalibamba, nokuyisizathu sesibili, ladala ukuba abaholi abaningi abaqavile be-EPRDF abafana no Meles Zenawi ongasekho, baqhamuka kuleli qembu. Igoda phakathi kwe TPLF ne-EPRDF lagqabuka ngoZibandlela nyakenye emveni kokuba izinhlelo zikaNdunankulu u-Ahmed zokusungula iqembi elisha futhi elilodwa kunokuba kuqhutshekwe nomfelandawonye zaphumelela. ITPLF, kwaba yiyo kuphela eyabe iyingxenye ye-EPRDF eyaqoma ukuba yiqembu eliphikisayo nelizimele kunokuba ivale amasango ibe yingxenye yeqembu elisha. 

Leli qhaza kwezepolitiki yase-Ethiopia, liphinde lidlulele kwezombuso wezwe kanye nezempi. Kukhulunywa nje, ucwaningo ngezempi kuleli lizwe luveza ukuthi esifundazweni iTigray babalelwa kuzinkulungwane ezingacishe zibe ngama-250 abantu abahlome ngezikhali okubalwa abayingxenye yamasotsha ezwe nabakumaqembu ahlukene asabalele kulesi sifundazwe. Iningi laleli nani laziwa njengelicheme neleseka izidingo nezinjongo zeqembu iTPLF. Ukuze leli nani lizwakale kahle, asisebenzise iNingizimu Afrika njengesibonelo. Inani lamasotsha ase Ningizimu Afrika – ngemikhakha yayo eyahlukene – licishe libalelwe ezinkulungwaneni ezingevile ema-66,4. Uma uqhathanisa leli nani naleli eselibaliwe eTigray, kucaca bha ukuthi impi efana nalena angeke kube yinto encane. Le ngqikithi iphinde yenze ukuthi le mpi esiqalile yephuze ukuphela, ikakhulukazi njengoba okwamanje ingekho efuna ukugoba uphondo phakathi kwabaholi beTPLF kanye noHulumeni oholwa uNdunankulu. 

Okunye okumele kubalulwe wukuthi isifundazwe iTigray akuyona indawo encane, ingacishe ilinganiswe neKwaZulu-Natal. Phezu kwalokho, inkambu yamasothsa enkulu kunazo zonke e-Ethiopia ebizwa ngeNorthen Command izinze eTigray. Okusho ukuthi uma le mpi ingakhuzeki akunasiqiniseko sokuthi le nkambu nezikhali ezikuyo zolokhu zigcine zisezandleni zikaHulumeni ngokugcwele, noma ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kungatholakala seziwela kuTPLF. Phezu kwakho konke lokhu, kumele kungakhohlwa ukuthi u-Ahmed uyiphake eTigray ubudlelwane phakathi kukaHulumeni wezwe kanye nabanye oHulumeni bezifunda ikakhulukazi e-Oromo buyantenga, ngoba nabo banezikhalazo zabo ezithize. Lokhu kusho ukuthi, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, akusona isizwe samaTigray kuphela uHulumeni angazithola esebamba impi naso.  

See Also
UCabral wazakhela ugazi ngobuholi obuneqiniso

Yimpi lena ezophinde idunge imimoya nobudlelwane phakathi kwamazwe ayingxenye yalesi sifunda esibizwa ngeHorn of Africa, kube kuvele kungamazwe abhekene nezingqinamba ezixaka ukwenza. Imibiko esivelile ikhombisa ukuthi elaseSudan selithumele amasotsha alo eTigray nalapho kulindeleke ukuba eseke uHulumeni wase-Ethiopia. 

ISudan ithatha lesi sinqumo nje kuvele kuke kwabakhona ukuhilizisana phakathi kwala mazwe ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka ngenkathi iSudan isola elase-Ethiopia ngokweseka ngasese abavukelimbuso abagasela ezifundazweni zaseSudan. Bese kuthi enhla ne-Ethiopia, elase-Eritrea nalo angeke lizibeke phansi ngenxa yobudlelwano osebedlondlobala ne-Ethiopia emveni kwezivumelwano zokwakha ukuthula phakathi kwala mazwe ezaqalwa nguNdunakulu u-Ahmed. Kodwa ngasohlangothini lweTPLF, i-Eritrea ‘iyisitha’ yingakho leli qembu, emveni kokuqala kwale mpi kuvele imibiko yokuthi lihlasele isikhumulo sezindiza eNhlokodolobha yase-Eritrea i-Asmara. Lesi sinyathelo sokuhlasela i-Eritrea singaba nemithelela emibili kuTPLF. Okokuqala ukuthi i-Eritrea, ngenxa yomthetho omisiwe wokuqeqeshwa kwezempi okuyimpoqo kwezakhamuzi, inani lamasotsha ayo libalelwa ezinkulungwaneni ezingama-250 kuya ema-300. Okusho ukuthi uma ngase yehlele eTigray iTPLF ingazithola idlela ogageni. 

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, isizwe esikhulu kunazo zonke e-Eritria amaTigrian, okwenza ukuthi kungabi nesiqiniseko sokuthi abekho kulesi sizwe abangazibandakanya neTPLF. Kodwa okwamanje okumele lesi sinyathelo sokuhlasela i-Eritrea, sithathwa njengetulo eliqonde ukunxenxa amazwe omhlaba nase-Afrika ngaphansi kwe-United Nations (UN) ne-African Union (AU) ukuthi abone okwenzeka e-Ethiopia njengesimo esidinga ukuthi angenelele. Kepha, ukungenelela kwalezi zinhlangano yinto uNdunankulu u-Ahmed aseshaye phansi ngonyawo ukuthi angeke ayivume yenzeke ngoba uthi uHulumeni ubhekene nobulelesi okuyisimo sangaphakathi futhi azosilungisa.  Noma kungaziwa ukuthi iyozala nkomoni, kunye okucasile nokungukuthi ezepolitiki e-Ethiopia asophinde zifane neziyikho namuhla! 

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