Ezase-Afrika

JOYINA NGENA
Dark Light

Imibungazo yeNhlangano Yezizwe mayingayilibali i-Afrika

nguSenzo Ngubane

Lo nyaka, ikakhulukazi uMandulo ubekelwe imibhiyozo yokubungaza iminyaka engama-75 kwasungulwa iNhlangano yaMazwe, i-United Nations (UN). 

Ukusungulwa nokukwazi ukuthi le nhlangano ibe khona kuze kube yile minyaka kuthathwa njengengqayizivele. Lokhu kudalwa yizizathu eziningi, esibalulekile kakhulu ngesokuthi inhlangano eyayikhona ngaphambi kokubunjwa kwe-UN eyayibizwa ngeLeague of Nations, eyayibunjwe ngowe-1920 ayihlalanga isikhathi eside futhi nalokho eyayisungulelwe ukuba ikugweme okufana nempi yomhlaba, yehluleka ukukufeza. 

Noma imibungazo yeminyaka emingaka kumele isekwe futhi nayo i-UN ihalaliselwe, kepha kubalulekile ukuthi kubuyekezwe okuthize ngomlando wale nhlangano ebudlelwaneni nezwekazi i-Afrika. Kuphinde kubaluleke nokukhumbuzana ukuthi noma ngabe siyithakasela le minyaka kodwa nayo i-UN ayikabi yile nhlangano yamazwe okwakulindeleke ukuba ibe yiyo. 

Uma kubhekisiswa kahle ukuvela kwezikhalo nge-UN ziqhamuka kwaboHlanga, ama-Afrika wonkana nezinye ezizwe ezingeyona ingxenye yenyakatho kucishe kulingane nayo le minyaka engama-75 le nhlangano yasungulwa. 

Esinye sezibonelo zalezi zikhalo ngeseqembu elibusayo eNingizimu Afrika, i-African National Congress (ANC) eyaba yingxenye yabokuqala abaphakamisa izinkonondo zayo nge-UN. Lezi zinkonondo zabonakalisa ukuthi le nhlangano komele ibhukule uma ifisa ukuthathwa njengaleyo eyokwazi ukubhekana ngendlela enobulungiswa nezingqinamba zamazwe ahlukene emhlabeni. 

Ngowe-1943 i-ANC isitatimende esabizwa nge-African Claims Charter isibhekise kubasunguli be-UN – okwabe kungamazwe amabili i-United States of America (USA) ne-England – ababekhiphe owabo umhlahlandlela owabizwa nge-Atlantic Charter ngowe-1941. 

Ku-African Claims Charter, leli qembu labe likhalazela ukuthi abasunguli be-UN bangasho kanjani ukuthi baqala inhlangano ezomelana nobulungiswa kepha kube kukhona izizwe namazwe asahlezi ngaphansi kwengcindezi. Ngamafuphi, umbuzo owavela ne-African Claims Charter wabe uthi: “le UN okuthiwa izosungulwa kungabe iphokophelele ukubhekelela zonke iziwe noma kwakuhloswe ukuba ifeze izidingo zezizwe ezithile? 

Amazwe nezizwe ezingasuki enyakatho okubalwa awase-Asia nase-Afrika, aphinde agadla ku-UN ngowe-1955 mhlazane ehlangene eBandung, e-Indonesia. 

Umhlangano eBandung wabe uhanjelwe amazwe ayesanda kuthola inkululeko kanye nezihambeli zamaqembu ayesalwela ukukhulula amazwe awo ayephethwe ngabanye bababumbi ababeqavile be-UN, abanjenge-England neFrance. 

Lo mhlangano waphetha ngesitatimende esabizwa ngeBandung Declaration. IBandung Declaration, kokunye eyayikuqukethe kwabe kuyizikhalazo zokuthi indlela i-UN eyabunjwa ngayo ayinabulungiswa ikakhulukazi ngoba yanikeza amazwe amahlanu kuphela amandla okuthatha izinqumo ezingaphikiswa ngaphansi kweSecurity Council. 

Lesi sikhalazo, esaphelezelwa yisiphakamiso sokuthi kumele indlela le nhlangano esebenza ngayo iguqulwe, sikhombisa ngqo eyokuthi ukukhalaza ngendlela i-UN esebenza ngayo akuyona into yayizolo. 

Kuphinde kukhombise ukuthi izinqumo ze-African Union (AU) eziqukethwe esitatimendeni esibizwa ngokuthi i-EZulwini Consensus, ezimayelana nokubaluleka kokuguqula ukusebenza kwe-UN, ziyingxenye yamagalelo asemandulo aqhamuka kumazwe nezinhlaka ezahlukene. 

See Also
Ubuchule okwahlanganiswa ngabo izwekazi i-Afrika

Njengoba kunale mibungazo nonyaka, kuyoba ngcono ukuthi amazwe ase-Afrika akhumbule, bese ebonga ensizweni eyabe ibizwa ngoSylvanus Olympio. Oka-Olympio waba umAfrika wokuqala ukubamba umhlangano ne-UN ngowe-1947. 

Abangazi bangacabanga ukuthi oka-Olympio waba nalo mhlangano ukuyofakana imilomo nozakwabo njengenjwayelo kepha kulo mhlangano kwabe kubanjwene ngezihluthu ngoba u-Olympio wabe eyofaka ‘isicelo’ sokuthi kukhululwe amazwe ayengamakoloni e-England neFrance ayebizwa ngeBritish Togoland neFrench Togoland kube yizwe elilodwa.  Lokhu wayekusho ngoba ethi, ngaphambi kokufika kwabezizwe kwakuvele kunjalo. ‘Lesi sicelo’ sachithwa yi-UN, okuyinto eyenza ukuthi namuhla indawo eyayibizwa ngeBritish Togoland iyingxenye yeGhana. 

Oka-Oylmpio, emveni kokuqhubeka nokulwela eyenkululeko yeTogo waba uMengameli wokuqala waseTogo ngowe-1958 waze wabulawa ngesihluku ngabavukelimbuso ngowe-1963. Kepha okubalulekile kulo mlando ukukhombisa ukuthi kwasekuqaleni ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-UN ne-Afrika babungebuhle, lokhu okokuqala. 

Okwesibili, ukhombisa ukuthi mhlazane le-UN isungulwa aboHlanga, izizwe ezazingeyona ingxenye yenyakatho, zazingabonwa. Lokhu sikusho ngoba, kunokuba kuthiwe inkululeko yamazwe onke omhlaba kanye nezizwe yinto okumele yenzeke, i-UN, yathatha isinqumo sokusungula iTrusteeship Council, okwakuyiyo eyayithamela ‘izicelo’ zamazwe nezizwe ezazifisa ukuzimela, ngamanye amazwi, zingaqhubeki nokuba amakoloni. Okuxakayo-ke kulo mlando ukuthi, bengobani bona beze bazinike amandla okuthi ezinye izizwe ‘azicele’ kubo inkululeko? 

Ekubungazeni le minyaka ye-UN kumele i-Afrika ingabakhohlwa abaqambi bendlela abafana no-Olympio, namaqhawe alandela ezinyathelweni zakhe afana noJulius Nyerere waseTanzania, uJohn Kale wase-Uganda noJeriretunda Kozonguizi waseNambia, ababayingxenye yezihambeli zokuqala ku-UN, nalapho babeyela ukuyokhululema eyenkululelo yaboHlanga. Ukungavumi kwe- UN ngaleyo minyaka ukwamukela ‘lezi zicelo’ kwaba nomthelela omkhulu ekutheni abaholi nezinhlangano ezithize ezwenikazi baqome ukuyiphaka ukuze bathole inkululeko. 

Siyagcizelela ukubaluleka kokuthi uhambo i-UN esiluthathile kule minyaka engama-75 lubungazwe. Kepha, ekwenzeni lokho kumele kungakhohlwa ukuthi ubudlelwano ne-Afrika nale nhlangano abuqalanga njengobukhombisa ubulungiswa. Kumele futhi kusetshenziswe leli thuba njengoba benza abaqambi bendlela asebebaliwe, kugcizelelwe ukuthi i-UN kumele isebenze ngendlela ekhombisa ukulingana phakathi kwamazwe nezizwe noma ngabe ezakuliphi izwekazi. Koba yichilo ukuthi le nhlangano ifike eminyakeni eyi-100 kusalokhu kukhala isicathulo samazwe amahlanu kuphela. 

Scroll To Top

Siyabonga ngokufunda iBayede.

Zakhele i-akhawunti yamahhala noma faka imininingwane
yakho uqhubeke ufunde.



Bheka izindlela zokukhokha ongakhetha kuzo.