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Ugwayi wumkhiqizo ongaphelelwa ngamandla

nguLindani Dhlomo

Ukuba ugwayi ngolunye uhlobo lwemikhiqizo ejwayelekile nje kulo mhlaba ngabe sesikhuluma ngawo njengomkhiqizo ophelelwe yisikhathi, kwaphela ngawo, kumbe selehlile isasasa lokukhiqizwa kwawo. Kunalokho kubonakala abawusebenzisayo bezama zonke izintuba zokuwuvikela nokuwenza uhlale ukhona emakethe. Kuzanywa ngazo zonke izindlela ukuwuqeda ugwayi kodwa kuyacaca ukuthi into engasoze yaphela ngokuthanda komuntu. Kunokuba uphele kwanda izinhlobo zawo, abantu bayaqhubeka bayawubhema. 

Kunohlelo olubizwa ngeTobacco Transformational Index olusemkhankasweni wokwehlisa ubungozi bukagwayi. Lo mkhankaso ukhuthaza izinkampani ezikhiqiza ugwayi ukuba ziqhubeke zehlise izithako ezinobungozi kumuntu ezifakwe kugwayi. Umbiko wonyaka ophezulu, wezi-2020, okhishwe kulolu hlelo enyangeni kaMandulo, lapho bekuhlolwa izinkampani eziyishumi nesihlanu ezingabakhiqizi abahamba phambili emhlabeni jikelele bathole ukuthi kuncane kakhulu okwenziwa yilezi zinkampani ekunciphiseni ubungozi bukagwayi. Lezi zinkampani ezili-15 zikhiqiza ama-90% kagwayi okhona emhlabeni jikelele. Ngokwezibalo ezikhishwe kulo mbiko kuthiwa babalelwa ezigidini ezingu-1,3 (1 300 000 000) abantu ababhema ugwayi emhlabeni, kanti izibalo ziveza ukuthi izigidi eziyisi-8 zibulawa yizifo ezihlobene nokubhema ugwayi ngonyaka. Inkampani eziqwaqwada emakhanda zonke emhlabeni kumkhiqizo kagwayi yiSwedish Match, ilandelwe yiChina National Tobacco Corp. IBritish American Tobacco, ehamba phambili kuleli lizwe nayo ibalwa kuzo lezi eziyishumi nesihlanu.

Kuzo zonke lezi zinkampani eziyishumi nesihlanu ayikho neyodwa eyase-Afrika. Ubhenywa kangaka nje ugwayi e-Afrika, kusizakala izinkampani zakwamanye amazwe. Uma bewuwangabaza amandla kagwayi emnothweni, kumele uqale ubhekisise. Amandla kagwayi abonakala ekutheni noma ugxekwa ujivazwa nxazonke mncane umehluko ekukhiqizweni kwawo. Uma usomabhizinisi engase abe nomkhiqizo onamandla njengogwayi kungabe unesikhondlakhondla somkhiqizo. Ayiminingi imikhiqizo engamelana nokujivazwa njengogwayi.

Ngesikhathi semvalelwakhaya, esifike kungalindele muntu, kuze kwaphela izinyanga ezintathu belokhu bewubhema abantu ugwayi, uze uzibuze ukuthi bawutholaphi ngoba kusavaliwe nje? Imbalwa imikhiqizo efuze ugwayi ngokuba yingqwele emakethe. Uma unomkhiqizo ocishe ulingane nogwayi emakethe ubokwazi ukuthi uyingqwele ngoba kusho ukuthi uphethe inkunzi kayihlehli uqobo lwayo, umavula kuvaliwe. Mhlawumbe kungakuhle abantu abasafuna ukuqala ibhizinisi bazinike isikhathi sokubheka imikhiqizo efuze ugwayi ngokuba yinunu engafi noma seyihlaselwa nxazonke. 

Yonke iminyaka kuyaye kuthi uma uNgqongqoshe owengamele uMnyango Wezezimali ethula inkulumo yakhe yokuvula unyaka, kuba yinto ejwayelekile ukuthi uzokhuluma ngentela yesono, lapho esuke ebala khona ugwayi notshwala. Ukwenyuka kwentela minyaka yonke kuyimizamo yokwehlisa ukuthandwa nokuthengwa kukagwayi ngabantu. Angikaze ngizwe umuntu ethi uyeke ukubhema ngoba kwenyuka intengo yawo. Kumanje intengo kagwayi imba eqolo kodwa ababhemi balala ngawo bavuke ngawo, behlise ngawo emva kokudla. Noma esewubhemile umuntu awumsuthisi kodwa awuyekeki kalula kwabawubhemayo. 

Abezempilo sebenze eminingi imizamo yokwehlisa izinga lokubhenywa kukagwayi kodwa kubukeka incane impumelelo. Ebhokisini likagwayi kunombhalo oxwayisa ngobungozi bokubhema kodwa abantu bawubhema noma sewubhalwe kanjalo. Sekwanqunywa ukuthi obhemayo kumele angabhemi ezindaweni zomphakathi kodwa akulehlisi izinga lokuthengwa nokusetshenziswa kukagwayi. Ugwayi uyaqhubeka nokuba ngeminye yemikhiqizo esemqoka kuleli lizwe ngokungenisa imali enkulu ngentela. Uhlaselwa nxazonke kodwa phezu kwalokho awupheli amandla. 

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Kunezinkulumo ezisabalele zokuthi ngenkathi kunemvalelwakhaya iningi lababhemayo bebewuthola ugwayi ngoba kukhona abakhiqizi abacashile ababeqhubeka nokuwukhiqiza nokuwudayisa. Kuyacaca ukuthi noHulumeni uyazi ukuthi kunogwayi ongena ngendlela engekho emthethweni kuleli lizwe futhi baningi abadayisa ugwayi ongekho emthethweni. Kungenzeka kube yibo laba abasebenzisa izindlela ezingekho emthethweni abenza inzuzo enkulu kunalabo abasemthethweni ngoba abayikhokhi intela ekhokhwa yilabo abahweba ngokusemthethweni. 

Abalima ugwayi eNingizimu Afrika bafuna izindlela abazobhekana ngazo nokukhula kwentengo kagwayi osemthethweni kuleli lizwe. Ukukhula kwentengo kagwayi odayiswa ngokusemthethweni kuvule intuba yabadayisi abangekho emthethweni. Lokhu kubhebhezelwe nayimvalelwakhaya, kwenza nalabo abebengenalwazi olungakho ngemikhiqizo engekho emthethweni, bagcina befunda. Leyo mikhiqizo idayiswa ngamanani aphansi kunaleyo esemthethweni. 

Kulolonke iketango lokukhiqizwa nokudayiswa kukagwayi ayikho inkampani esingayibala yase-Afrika. Ngikhuluma ngezwekazi i-Afrika ngoba kusobala ukuthi amandla aba makhulu uma amazwe ehlangene ekwenzeni umkhiqizo onamandla. Uma uzwa igama elithi British American Tobacco kusho indaba enkulu, yokuhlangana kwezikhondlakhondla zamazwe omhlaba kulolu hlobo lomkhiqizo. Noma ngabe ehlukene kangakanani amazwe, kumele kusicacele ukuthi uma sekukhulunywa ngomnotho ziyenziwa izinhlelo zokuhlangana. 

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