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Zivuke umbejazane izakhamuzi zaseZimbabwe nezaseSudan
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Zivuke umbejazane izakhamuzi zaseZimbabwe nezaseSudan

ISIMO sezomnotho emhlabeni wonke jikelele simanzonzo, akusekude ukuthi izakhamuzi zamazwe ehlukene zizithole zithwele kanzima. Lesi simo somnotho ontengayo sesibe nomthelela ekunyukeni kwamanani entengo yezidingo zemihla namalanga. Lokhu kuphoqa izakhamuzi ukuthi zenze izaba ukuze zikwazi ukumelana nalobu bunzima. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, emazweni amaningi ukwehluleka kwezakhamuzi ukumelana nokwenyuka kwamanani kugcina sekuziphoqa ukuthi zibhikishele ohulumeni. Izinkomba zokuthi ezomnotho zintenga umhlaba wonke ngukuthi ngisho amazwe aseNtshonalanga nawo abhekene nemibhikisho yezakhamuzi. Isibonelo lapha yiFrance osekuphele izinyanga ezevile kwezimbili kunezakhamuzi ezibhikishela ukwenyuka kwamani entengo yezidingo ezifana nophethiloli.

Ezwenikazi i-Afrika mabili amazwe lapho izakhamuzi sezivuke umbhejazane ngenxa yesimo somnotho esibucayi. YiSudan kanye neZimbabwe. Ake siqhathanise izehlakalo ezikhona kula mazwe nendlela ohulumeni abaphethe bala mazwe asebezame ngayo ukubhekana nazo. NgoZibandlela nyakenye, kwaqubuka imibhikisho eSudan lapho izakhamuzi zazikhononda ngokwenyuka kwentengo yesinkwa kanye nophethiloli. Le mibhikisho yaqala edolobheni i-Atbara, yase ibhebhethekela kwamanye njengase-Um Rawaba, eGadarif kanye nasenhlokodolobha imbala iKhartoum. EZimbabwe kuqubuke imibhikisho kuleli sonto lapho izakhamuzi nakhona bezikhala ngokwenyuka kwentengo kaphethiloli. NjengaseSudan, le mibhikisho eZimbabwe ayigcinanga kuphela edolobheni elilodwa kodwa iqubuke nakwamanye afana nakwaBulawayo.

Kuwo womabili la mazwe okuphawulekayo ngukuthi le mibhikisho iqalwa yizikhalo zezakhamuzi ngesimo somnotho esingesihle, kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi iphethe ngokuthi uHulumeni noMengameli abehle esikhundleni. Kuze kube manje, kuwo womabili la mazwe, izikhalo zokuqala zezakhamuzi bezingakayitholi impendulo ezwakalayo koHulumeni okubonakala kuba yisizathu esidala ukuthi izakhamuzi zigcine seziphakamisa ukuthi umbuso walabo hulumeni awuphele. Bobablili labohulumeni, ikakhulukazi owaseSudan, ushaya phansi ngonyawo ngelokuthi awuyi ndawo ngoba yinye vo indlela okumele isetshenziswe ekuguquleni uhulumeni, wukhetho! Izimpendulo zohulumeni bala mazwe kulezi zimfuno zezakhamuzi ziyefana. ESudan, impendulo kaHulumeni kaMengameli u-Al Bashir kulezi zikhalo isalokhu ime ekuthumeleni amasotsha kanye namaphoyisa ukuba ahlakaze ngesihluku izixuku zababhikishi, abanye bazithole sebeboshwa. NaseZimbabwe ngokunjalo uhulumeni usuphake ezokuphepha kuwo wonke amadolobha lapho kukhona imibhikisho okuyindlela obona ingcono ukuthi kubhulwe le mililo.

Okukhalisa abaningi ngelaseSudan ukuthi abezokuphepha basebenzisa indluzula kuzakhamuzi ezibhikishela uhulumeni, kodwa isandla sithambe emaqenjini okuthiwa eseka uHulumeni ka-Al Bashir. Okuphinde kubonakale ngukuthi njengoba le mibhikisho idlondlobala, labo hulumeni bathatha izinyathelo zokuthi banciphise noma bavale izindlela zokuxhumana ezweni. Lesi sinyathelo sinciphisa amathuba okuthi ababhikishi bakwazi ukuthintana, siphinde senze kube nzima ukuthola kahle izindaba ngokwenzekayo kula mazwe. Uma kucutshungulwa kahle ngelaseSudan, imibhikisho efana nalena ebhekiswe kuHulumeni oholwa ngu-Al Bashir ayiqali. Eminyakeni yowezi-2013 nowezi-2016, yaqubuka emadolobheni amaningi nalapho izakhamuzi zazikhala ngokwenyuka kwentengo yezidingo ezifana nophethiloli, imithi yezempilo kanye nogesi. Impendulo kaHulumeni yangaphambili iyafana neyanamuhla, okungukuchitha lezi zikhalazo. Ezinye zezizathu ezeza nohulumeni phambilini zaba ngukuthi umthelela ngesimo somnotho esibucayi kwabe kungunswinyo kwezohwebo olwalufakwe amazwe aseNtshonalanga ikakhulukazi i-USA.

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Kepha, lesi sizathu asisabambeki ngoba ngonyaka wezi-2017 kuMfumfu, i-USA yathatha isinqumo sokuthi iluhoxise lolu nswinyo. Namuhla, uHulumeni waseSudan usugxeka amanye amazwe angomakhelwane ngokuthi yiwo aphehla uzwathi oludala le mibhikisho. NaseZimbabwe, kunokuba uHulumeni ubhekane ngqo nezikhalo zezakhamuzi, nawo usola abathize othi basebenzisa izakhamuzi ngenhloso yokubhukuqa umbuso ka Mengameli Mnangagwa. Kuqubuka le mibhikisho nje uHulumeni kaMnangagwa usahlezi ngaphansi konswinyo lwezowhebo olwafakwa ngamhla izwe lisaphethwe nguMugabe. Isethulo eseza emveni kokhetho lwanyakenye sokuthi i-USA ihoxise lolu nswinyo asikalalewa. Lokhu sekunike uHulumeni intuba yokuthi ubale lolu nswinyo njengezinye zezizathu ezikhomba ukuthi izingqinamba obhekene nazo kwezomnotho zidalwa ngamanye amazwe. Izizathu ezifana nalezi zenza ukuthi uHulumeni waseZimbabwe ungafuni ukubhekana ngqo nezikhalo, kepha ubhace ngaphansi kokuthi usadinga ukunikwa isikhathi ukuze ukwazi ukwakha umnotho owabulawa yizenzo zalabo ababephethe ngaphambili.

Okwamanje labo hulumeni basakhombisa ukuthi bayala ukwamukela lezi zikhalo zezakhamuzi njengeziqotho. Kunalokho baqinisa ingalo yomthetho ngokusebenzisa abezokuphepha, baphinde bame ezinsolweni zabo zokuthi kunesandla semfene esidunga ukuthula emazweni abo. Noma kungaziwa ukuthi koze kube nini belokhu bebhace ngezizathu ezifana nalezi, okucace bha ukuncipha kwesineke sezakhamuzi sokubekezelela ukuhlala ngaphansi kwengcindezi edalwa ukwentuleka kwemisebenzi, izindleko ezidalwa ukunyuka kwentengo, nokufiphala kwamathemba okuthi isimo sizoba ngcono. Lokhu kusho ukuthi noma ngabe le mibhikisho ekhona kula mazwe ingaphela ngenxa yendluzula yabaphathi bemibuso, kodwa isayophinde iqubuke ekuhambeni kwesikhathi.

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