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Siseyisilonda esibhibhayo isibhicongo saseRwanda
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Siseyisilonda esibhibhayo isibhicongo saseRwanda

nguMfo waKwaNomajalimane

NGENYANGA edlule bekuphela iminyaka engama-24 kwenzeka isibhicongo eRwanda lapho kwabulawa khona abantu abalinganiselwa esigidini bezizwe ezimbili ezazingabhekani amaHutu namaTutsi. Ngesikhathi esifanayo ngowe-1994 kwakuguquka izinto eNingizimu Afrika njengoba kwangena uHulumeni wentando yabantu, kwaba ngokokuqala ukuthi izwe liphathwe umuntu woHlanga okwaba nguMnu uNelson Mandela. Noma sekuphele isikhathi esingaka kwaphela impi eRwanda, kepha kwabaningi amanxeba asankenketha. Kuningi osekwenziwe uMengameli waseRwanda uPaul Kagame ukuqinisekisa ukuthi okwenzeka eminyakeni edlule akuphinde kwenzeke. UKagame usekwazile ukuhlanganisa zonke izizwe ezazingabhekani okungangokuba ngisho nakuHulumeni wakhe amaHutu namaTutsi ameleleke ngokulinganayo.

Maningi namanye amazwe asebukela kokwenzeka eRwanda kwazise yona ikwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi ukubambisana yilona qhingasu elisemqoka kwezepolitiki elingaqeda udlame nombango wamandla. Amanye amazwe ayizikhondlakhondla asebenzisa idemokhrasi yokungaqoqeli amandla ndawonye futhi okuwuhlelo oluwasebenzelayo i-United States of America, iNetherlands, nayo iNingizimu Afrika okuyinto ebonakele ngesikhathi kungena uHulumeni omusha ngowe-1994. Kukhona abasho okwehlukile ngoHulumeni waseRwanda abawuchaza njengoncike kakhulu eqenjini elibusayo okwenza ezinye izinhlangano ezimelelekile ePhalamende zingabi nazwi. Bathi inqubo yedemokhrasi iya ngokushabalala, futhi labo abacabanga ngokwehlukile kuHulumeni bavalwa umlomo. Labo abagxeka uMengameli uKagame bathi uhamba ezinyathelweni zikaMengameli omdala angena esikhundleni sakhe ngokuthatha wonke amandla awabeke ezandleni zedlanzana losopolitiki nezikhulu zezempi ezikhethekile futhi eziphezulu.

Bathi uma iRwanda ingaqhubeka ngokulandela inqubo kaMengameli uKagame, kungenzeka ukuthi noMengameli oyolandela emuva kwakhe kube ngozoqoqela amandla ndawonye njengoba kubonakele kwamanye amazwe kushintsha inhloko yombuso, kodwa inqubo elandelwayo ijike ifane noma isimo sibe sibi kakhulu. Njengoba abantu bengayi nganxanye bengemanzi kukhona abasho okwehlukile ngoKagame. Kukhona abamchoma uphaphe lwegwalagwala ngokuthi ukwazile ukuthatha izwe obese kuphelile ngalo kulandela isibhicingo sokubulawa kwabantu (genocide) waguqula izinto. Njengamanje umnotho waseRwanda ukhulile. Emhlanganweni wokugcina we- African Union (AU) iRwanda yaba ngundabamlonyeni kunxuswa namanye amazwe ukuba asike iphethini kuyo. Ukuze abantu baqonde kahle ukuthi iRwanda ifinyelele kanjani kulesi sigaba esikuso manje kusemqoka ukuveza umlando wayo ukuze kucace ukuthi awukho umlingo owenzekile.

Ukubulawa kwabantu ngeminyaka yama-1990 kwakungeyona into entsha eRwanda , kodwa kwaba yisona sigameko leli lizwe elagcina seligqama ngaso emhlabeni. Empeleni udlame oluhlobene nobuhlanga lwaqala ngeminyaka ye-1950 ngesikhathi leli lizwe lisemzabalazweni wokuthola inkululeko ezweni laseBelgium okuyilo elalilicindezele limi endleleni yalo yokuba yizwe elizimele, iRepublic. IRepublic yokuqala eyayiholwa uMengameli uGrégoire Kayibanda neqembu lakhe iRepublican Democratic Movement eyayaziwa ngeMDR-Parmehetu – yasungulwa ngowe-1962 ngenhloso yokupholisa amanxeba ashiywa amakoloni nombuso woBukhosi bamaTutsi. Umbuso woBukhosi wachithwa ngowe-1961 ngababephezulu kumaHutu besekwa iziphathimandla zaseBelgium Lesi simo saphoqa ukuba bonke ababelandela umbuso woBukhosi, nabesizwe samaTutsi baye ekudingisweni.

Ngenxa yokwesabisa okwakuqhamuka kumaTutsi, uMengameli uKayibanda wawaqoqela ndawonye wonke amandla ombuso wenza iRwanda iRepublic yamaHutu, kwangaba yizwe labo bonke abantu bakhona ababeyizizukulwane. AmaTutsi abulawa ngesihluku amanye aphoqeleka ukuyocasha kwamanye amazwe. Lawo asala ezweni ayengathathwa njengezakhamuzi ezigcwele. Iqembu iMDR-Parmehutu lasebenzisa ukuvukela umbuso kwamaTutsi njengehawu lokuvala umlomo bonke labo ababephikisana nalo kwezepolitiki. Labulala abanye abaholi balo, abanye labafaka ngaphansi kwalo. Ngowe-1965 iRwanda yabe isiyizwe eliholwa iqembu elilodwa lezepolitiki. Akubanga yinto ethusayo ukuthi ngasekupheleni kwesikhathi sokubusa sikaKayibanda ngowe-1973, labo ayesondelene nabo bathi kumele kwenziwe izichibiyelo kuMthethosisekelo wezwe ukuze anikwe ithuba lokuphatha ihlandla lesithathu.

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Esikhundleni sokuba kugxilwe embangweni wamandla owawukhona phakathi kwamaHutu, labo ababeseka uHulumeni wamaHutu basusa olunye udungunyane belubhekise kumaTutsi nokwagcina ngokuthi kube nokuvukela umbuso ngowe-1973 kwabulawa uKayibanda nayesondelene nabo. Abanye ababephambili kule Republic yokuqala baboshwa. Owayephambili kuqunjwa umbuso uMajor General uJuvénal Habyarimana, wathatha izintambo zombuso wathembisa ukwakha iRepublic yesibili eyayinokuthula, ubumbano nentuthuko. Eminyakeni eminingi esemandleni waphumelela ukubuyisa uzinzo ezweni wakhulisa nomnotho okwamenza intandokazi yalabo ababezinikele ngokufaka usizo eRwanda. Leli lizwe latuswa ngokuba isibonelo esihle entuthukweni yase-Afrika. Izinto ezimbili ahluleka ukubhekana nazo uHabyarimana kwaba ukubhekana ngeziqu zamehlo phakathi kwezinhlanga okungamaHutu namaTutsi nesimo samaTutsi ayekhosele ezinkanjini.

Izinkinga ezingaxazululwanga zalabo ababesezinkanjini zaholela ekuqubukeni kwesibhicongo sowe- 1990. Le mpi yiyo futhi eyaholela ekubulaweni kukaMengameli ngowe-1994. Kungalesi sikhathi lapho kwavumbuka khona iqembu likaKagame iRPF okwaba yilo elibusayo. NoKagame wazibophezela ekudaleni ukuthula, ukuphatha ngendlela engenankohlakalo nokuxazulula inkinga yalabo ababekhosele ezinkanjini. Namuhla iRwanda iyizwe elihlukile, lokhu kufakazelwa nayisibalo esikhulu sezivakashi ezitheleka kuyo. Njengoba kulo nyaka kuphela iminyaka engama-24 kwenzeka isibhicongo sokubulalana kwabantu bakhona, izivakashi zingena zilakanyana endaweni eyisikhumbuzo salesi sigameko.

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