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Liyohlala libongwa igalelo leCuba e-Afrika
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Liyohlala libongwa igalelo leCuba e-Afrika

nguSenzo Ngubane

‘UMLANDO we-Afrika usufike kwangqingetshe. Umlando wezwekazi usuyolotshwa nge-Afrika ngaphambi kweCuito Cuanavale nangemuva kwayo. Ngenxa yokuthi amandla eNingizimu Afrika, eholwa abebala abazibona beyisizwe esingcono, bahlangana nezimbila zithutha esifundazweni esincane, esivikelwe ngaboHlanga bebambisene nabaseCuba. Inhloso yethu akukhona ukushaya ibhuqe kule mpi, kepha silwela ukuba kudaleke isisombululo esinobulungiswa. Lesi senzo sizodala ukuthi abebala bangalahlekelwa yiNamibia kuphela, kepha bangaphinde babone sekushabalala ubandlululo. Sifuna isisombululo ngokushesha, ngikholelwa ukuthi lokhu esikubonayo kuyisiqalo sokuphela kobandlululo.’

La mazwi acashunwe enkulumweni eyenziwa ngongasekho owayenguMengameli waseCuba, uFidel Castro ngowe-1988. Wayekhuluma ngenkathi isabambene phezulu endaweni ebizwa ngeCuito Cuanavale e-Angola phakathi kwamasosha aseNingizimu Afrika ayeseka abavukelimbuso ababeholwa nguJonas Savimbi, kanye namasosha ase-Angola ayesekwa yiCuba.

Emasontweni edlule bekubungazwa iminyaka engama-30 yaphela le mpi. Bekuthi uma kubhekisiwa kahle umlando wezwekazi, ikakhulukazi isifunda saseNingizimu, kubonakale ukuthi le mpi yaba nohlonze ezinguqukweni eziningi ezabakhona. Yingakho ke, unyaka nonyaka, le mpi ihlale ikhunjulwa ngoba okucacayo ukuthi ngaphandle kwayo, nomphumela eyeza nawo, mhlasimbe ngabe izinguquko emazweni afana neNamibia kanye neNingizimu Afrika zathatha iminyaka. Yingakho le nkulumo kaCastro noma ayenza ngaphambi kokuba lezi zinguquko akhuluma ngazo zifezeke,  ikhombisa ukuthi wayengomunye wabaholi ababenolwazi olunzulu mayelana nezobudlelwane bamazwe ase-Afrika kanye namanye.

Isiphetho sale mpi yaseCuito Cuanavale sahamba njengamagama enkehli, njengoba ayebekile okaCastro. Ezingxoxweni ezaba khona emveni kokuba umkhonto ujame enxebeni kumazwe ayelwa kulempi kuningi okunqala okwavunyelwana ngakho. Okokuqala, nokubalulekile kwaba ngukuthi amasosha aseNingizimu Afrika aphume aphele e-Angola ngowe-1988, bese kuthi nawaseCuba nawo ahoxe. Lezi zingxoxo, zaphinde zadala ukuba kuqiniswe nesivumelwano esagcina sesenza ukuba kuthathwe izinyathelo zokukhulula iNamibia (eyayibizwa ngeSouth West Africa), ngonyaka wezi-1990.

Ukuphuma kwamasosha aseNingizimu Afrika e-Angola; nokuqalwa kwendlela yokuthi iNamibia ithole inkululeko, kwaba yinkomba kwabaningi ukuthi nakuleli lizwe izinguquko ziyeza. Ukube izwe laseCuba alizange lithathe izinyathelo elazithatha, liholwa uCastro, akungabazeki ukuthi kwakuyothatha iminyaka ukuba iNingizimu Afrika ikwazi ukuqeda ubandlululo.

Le mpi yaseCuito Cuanavale, ingezinye yezehlakalo ezikhombisa indima enkulu futhi ebalulekile eyadlalwa yiCuba ekusekeni imizamo kanye nemizabalazo yenkululeko kumazwe amaningi ezwenikazi, ikakhulukazi e0Angola, Namibia kanye naseNingizimu Afrika. Igalelo leCuba kumele ngabe laba yisifundo esikhulu kumazwe amaningi anobudlelwane nezwekazi.

Leli galelo likhombisa ukuthi akhona amazwe emlandweni wezwekazi ayengenazinhloso zokubhaca ngokuthi afuna ukusisiza kepha ebe egaqele ukubhozemela umnotho wethu. Kuze kube namuhla, azikho nezincane izinkomba zokuthi iCuba kukhona eyahamba nakho emveni kokuphuma kwamasosha ayo e-Angola. Lokhu uCastro wakuqiniseka mhla ekhuluma eSishayamthetho saseNingizimu Afrika ngonyaka we-1998, lapho athi: ‘Eminyakeni eyevile ema-30 abalelwa ezi-381 432 amasosha kanye nezikhulu zaseCuba ezabambisana nababelwela  inkululeko e-Afrika ukuze bathole ukuzimela nokuthi kuphele ukuhlukunyezwa ngamanye amazwe.

Emveni kwale minyaka amasosha aseCuba esebenze ngokukhulu ukuzimisela nokuzidela mhla eshiya e-Afrika awathathanga lutho ngaphandle kozakwabo ababesale enkundleni, kanye nodumo nokuziqaja ngokuba babe yingxenye yalabo abaseka ukulwela inkululeko’. Ngamanye amazwi, uCastro wayeqonde ukukhombisa ukuthi ebudlelwaneni nezwekazi,  iCuba ayifani namanye amazwe, ikakhulukazi aseNyakatho.

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Umlando ngale mpi yaseCuito Cuanavale, kanye nezinye izigameko ezwenikazi lapho amazwe ehlukene, kanye namaqembu ayelwela inkululeko abambana ngezandla, kuseyinto okumele ibhekisiswe kahle ukuze ibe yingxenye yolwazi olutholakala kalula. Ukulondolozwa kwalo mlando kubalulekile ukuze izizukulwane zibe nolwazi olugcwele mayelana ne zwekazi nezigameko ezabakhona phambilini okuyizo ezadala ukuthi kube nezinguquko ezingqala kumazwe amaningi. Yingakho ke umhlangano wokuqala ngqa woNgqongqoshe bezobuciko kanye namasiko ababuya kumazwe ase-Afrika eseNingizimu okuyiSouthern African Development Community (SADC) ubaluleke kakhulu.

Lo mhlangano ubuholwa nguNgqongqoshe Wezobuciko  Namasiko eNingizimu Afrika uMnu uNathi Mthethwa, ebambisene noMkhandlu Wezemvelo Kazwelonke (National Heritage Foundation). Phakathi kokunye uphume nomhlahlandlela wokuthi umlando okhona ezwenikazi, ikakhulukazi loyo omayenala nokulwela inkululeko kumele ubhalwe ukuze ulondolozwe.

Lo mhlahlandlela, akuthenjwe ukuthi usuyosiza ekutheni uvule amehlo abaningi mayelana nobudlelwane obabukhona phambilini okumele bube amagugu aboHlanga ngoba buyingqalasizinda yoguquko olwezenzeka phambilini olwadala ukuba amazwe amaningi e-Afrika eseNingizimu athole inkululeko.

  • UMnu uSenzo Ngubane, uNgoti ozimele kwezocwaningo lokudala ukubuyisana nokuthula ezwenikazi i-Africa.
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