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UCabral wazakhela ugazi ngobuholi obuneqiniso

nguSenzo Ngubane

Kuzo zonke izigomagoma ezaziwayo futhi ezisathwelwe ngeqoma kumaqembu nabalandeli alabo abalwela inkululeko ye- Afrika, igama lika-Amílcar Lopez da Costa Cabral owabulalwa ngowe-1973 lingelinye elisabatshazwa nanamuhla. Ngowe-1956 UCabral wasungula wase eba umholi wokuqala weqembu iPartido Africano da Independence da Guiné e Cabo Verde (PAIGC) elaba negalelo elikhulu emzabalazweni wokulwela inkululeko yala mazwe amabili ayephethwe ngaphansi kwengcindezi yePortugal. Noma iGuinea neCape Verde sekungamazwe ahlukene, ngaleyo minyaka esabuswa yiPortugal ayethathwa njengezwe elilodwa, yikho okaCabral wabona kungcono ukuthi ababelwela inkululeko kula mazwe babe yimbumba. Kwaba ubuhlakani bukaCabral obadala ukuthi iPAIGC ikwazi ukuzihlela kuze kufinyelele lapho kuyiyo eyaziwa njengeqembu “elihola” yonke imizamo yenkululeko ezweni.

Wayengadumile kuphela ngokuba umsunguli waleli qembu kepha waphinde wazakhela ugazi nokuba nobuholi obuneqiniso nokukhathazeka ngezakhamuzi ezazicindezelwe amaPutukezi, okwamenza agcizelele ukuthi emveni kokuthola inkululeko komele amaqembu anjengePAIGC azibonakalise ngezenzo zawo ezakhayo ukuthi obe ehlukile kunamanye. Ugqozi lwakhe lokubumba iqembu elizikhathazayo ngezidingo zezakhamuzi kwabonakala ngaso isikhathi besalwela inkululeko. Ezinye zezinhlelo nezifundiso eza nazo kwaba ukugqugquzela abalandeli nabaholi bePAIGC ukuthi bangazithatheli phansi izinhlaka zoBukhosi bendabuko ngoba ethi yibo obusondelene kakhulu nabantu, wagcizelela kubalandeli ukubaluleka komhlaba wase ebafundisa ngezokulima ukuze basabalale izwe lonke bayofundisa izakhamuzi lokho abasebekwazi.

Ekwenza lokhu wagcizelela ukubaluleka kokuthi abantu bakwazi ukulima umhlaba ukuze bangalambi. IPAIGC yaphinde yeza nohlelo lapho izakhamuzi zikwazi ukuthola kalula futhi ngamanani aphansi lokho okuyizidingo zamihla ngemihla. Konke lokhu kwasiza ukunxexa abangabokudabuka eGuinea naseCape Verde ukuthi bazibandakaye nePAIGC empini yenkululeko. Akamanga lapho ngoba iPAIGC yaphinde yasungula izikhungo zemitholampilo ezifundazweni ezahlukene ezweni ezadala ukuthi ezempilo zifinyelele kubantu abaningi ikakhulukazi abasemaphandleni. Zonke lezi zinhlelo zePAIGC, ezaqhamuka ngesikhathi ibhekene nobunzima bokulwela inkululeko, zenzeka ngenxa yobuholi obuqotho nokukhathazeka kukaCabral ngezakhamuzi. Nanamuhla isexwayiso asisho kubalandeli bakhe lapho athi: “Kumele bakhumbule ukuthi abantu balwela izinto ezibambekayo…balwela ukuthula, impilo engcono, nekusasa eliqhakazile lezingane zabo. Inkululeko namalungelo okulingana koba yize kuzakhamuzi uma kungezi nezinguquko ezizophucula impilo yazo”.

Lesi sexwayiso nezenzo kukaCabral esahola iPAIGC kuyakhumbuleka namuhla uma kubhekwa okwenzekayo eGuinea- Bissau nokwenziwa yiqembu alisungula. Imiphumela yokhetho lukaMengameli olwabanjwa ngoZibandlela nyakenye yaveza ukuthi owayemele iqembu elibusayo iPAIGC waqunjwa phansi ngumholi weMovement for Democratic Change (MDC) okungelinye lamaqembu aphikisayo. Noma le miphumela yemukelwa izinhlaka ezahlukene ezaziyiso kulolu khetho, iPAIGC yashaya phansi ngonyawo yathi angeke iyamukele ngoba ithi ilungu layo elinqobile. Yingakho abaholi bePAIGC bagcina sebethatha isinqumo ngoMasingana nonyaka sokufaka isikhalo eNkantolo Enkulu.

Le Nkantolo yanquma ukuthi iKhomishini eyengamela ukhetho ayiphinde ihlolisise imiphumela. Kumpendulo yayo emveni kwalesi sinqumo, iKhomishini yama ekutheni ngokwayo, umholi weMDC odle umhlanganiso. Kuthe kuse njalo, abaholi beMDC bakhala ngokuthi iPAIGC “idlala ipolitiki” ngakho izoqhubeka nokubeka esikhundleni umholi wayo uJenene Embaló ngoba nguye owaphumelela. Emveni kwalokho, iPAIGC, isebenzisa amandla okuthi inamalungu amaningi ePhalamande yase iqoka owayo uMengameli. Lokhu kwadala ukuthi izwe libe noMengameli ababili ngesikhathi esisodwa. Akupholanga maseko emveni kwalezi zigameko, kwavela ukuthi bobabili abekade sebeqokiwe yila maqembu sebehlile ezikhundleni ngoba bethi basabela impilo yabo. Kukhulunywa nje, umkhonto usajame enxebeni ngoba akwazeki ukuthi ngubani uMengameli wezwe, nalapho ayikho evuma ukugoba uphondo.

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Ngapha, iMDC isamile ekutheni yiyo okumele iqoke uMengameli ngokwemiphumela yokhetho, ngakolunye uhlangothi, iPAIGC isamile ekutheni iKhomishini nezinye izinhlaka zikaHulumeni zichemile, ngakho izoqhubeka nokungayivumi imiphumela. Lo mbango phakathi kwamaqembu ezepolitiki usuphazamise izinhlelo eziningi ezweni ikakhulukaki lezi eziqondene nokubhekela izakhamuzi ebezivele zihlezi ngaphansi kwesimo esibucayi. Kukho konke okwenzekayo eGuinea- Bissau kuyabadumaza kwabazi ukujula komlando wePAIGC kanye naloyo owayibumba uCabral, uma bebuka lezi zigameko ezenza izwe inhlekisa. Abaholi baleli qembu bangakhalaza ngokuthi ukhetho aluhambanga ngohlelo, kepha angeke bakubalekele ukuthi kwalona iqembu liye okhethweni nje abaholi balo bengaboni ngaso linye, kubangwa izikhundla. Ngamanye amazwi, iPAIGC yazigwaza ngowayo ngoba yisimo kanye nendlela eziphethe ngayo okube nomthelela ngokwenzekayo ezweni okudale nokuthi ingxenye yezakhamuzi ilithathe njengeqembu elingathembekile.

Kunokuba ligxeke amanye amaqembu, kuze kudungeke imimoya ezweni, ukube beliholwa ngabaholi abafana nabasakhumbula izexwayiso zikaCabral sinesiqiniseko sokuthi ngabe akunjena ezweni. Ukube i-PAIGC yaqhubeka nokulandela izifundiso zika Cabral ngokuba yiqembu elilwela inkululeko nobulungiswa ezweni, nokuphucula impilo yezakhamuzi, kungabe ayizitholi intininiza iya ezinkantolo ukuze iqhubeke ibuse. Okukhathaza abaningi, ikakhulukazi amazwe angomakhelwane ukuthi ezempi eGuinea-Bissau zivamile ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki. Njengoba sekuphele izinyanga ezi-3 izwe lingenaHulumeni, nemibhikisho ilokhu iqhubekile ezweni, uma isimo sezepolitiki singaguquki, uma laba baholi beqhubeka nokubhekana ngeziqu zamehlo izwe libe lidinga ubuholi, siyobasola yini abezokuphepha uma bephinde begxambukela ngokuthi bathathe amandla ombuso?

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