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Ngabe izifundiswa ze-Afrika ziyawufukula yini umnotho wezwekazi?
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Ngabe izifundiswa ze-Afrika ziyawufukula yini umnotho wezwekazi?

nguMusa KMB Mpanza

Ngezifundiswa leli zwekazi elinazo akufanele engabe sisanezinkinga ngezifo ezifana nomalaleveva okwenza sizibuze ngohlobo lwemfundo yethu 


Ngonyaka wezi-2006 uMnu uPaul Tiyambe Zeleza wakubeka kwacaca ukuthi isibalo sabafundi ababesemanyuvesi ngonyaka we-1960 babebalelwa ezinkulungwaneni ezilikhulu namashumi amabili e-Afrika yonke. Lesi sibalo sikhule kakhulu ngokuhamba kweminyaka ngoba kuthe ngonyaka we-1995 isibalo sabafundi bese sibalelwa ngaphezulu kwezigidi ezi-3.4. 

Kuhle kakhulu ukuthi izwekazi lethu selihambe ibanga elide kangaka kwezemfundo ephakeme eminyakeni nje ebalelwa emashumini amathathu nanhlanu. Cishe siyazi sonke ukuthi alikho izwe elingathuthuka ngendlela okuyiyona yona uma lishiya intsha yalo emuva. Ngalawo mazwi sithi sibonga kakhulu kubaholi kusukela kongqongqoshe kuya komengameli ngomsebenzi omuhle asebewenzile bewenzela amazwe abo. Kuhle ukuthi bakwazile ukukhulisa isibalo sezikhungo zemfundo ephakame kusukela kwezingama-784 ngonyaka we-1999 kuya kweziyi-1 682 ngowezi-2018. 

Mhlawumbe umbuzo ongafikela omunye umuntu sekungaba othi engabe lawa manyuvesi akhiqiza hloboluni lwezifundiswa? Kunezinkinga ezinjengomalaleveva ezwenikazi i-Afrika okungafanele ngabe zisaxakile kodwa zisabhidlangile. Kanti hloboluni lwezisebenzi zezempilo nabacwaningi okukhiqizwa izikhungo zethu? Hloboluni lohulumeni esibakhethayo e-Afrika abangakwazi ukuxazulula izinkinga zenhlupheko emazweni abo. Le mibuzo ngiyibuza njengesakhamuzi esinexhala ngokundonda kwenqubekela phambili ezwenikazi lethu. Angizimisele khona namuhla ukukhuluma ngezindaba ezithinta ezempilo kodwa namuhla ngifisa ukugxila ekundondeni kwentuthuko e-Afrika kwale ngisho sesifumbathiswe izizumbulu zenkece okuthiwa eyomxhaso evela emazweni asentshonalanga nase-Europe.

Kunentokazi okuthiwa nguDambisa Moyo ongowokudabuka eLusaka, eZambia, efunde yagogoda iziqu zeMasters eHarvard University kanye neziqu zobuDokotela kwezoMnotho e-Oxford University. UDkt uMoyo wabhala incwadi esihloko sithi; “Dead Aid” ngowezi-2009 nalapho ekhala kakhulu khona ngokuthi usizo esiluthola kwabezizwe lusenza sibe zigqila zabo kunokuthi lulethe intuthuko kodwa luza nobunzima. Kusukela ngonyaka we-1970 kuya kowezi-2009 izindodla zemali ezingene ezwenikazi i-Afrika zilinganiselwa kuzigidigidi ezingama-$300 aseMelika. Okukhathaza kakhulu ukuthi nakuba kunezindodla ezingena zilakanyana ezwenikazi lethu kodwa namanje ububha nendlala kudla lubi, konakele kuphi?

Kahle kahle le mali iwumongo wenkohlakalo ngoba uma ifika ayizi nemibandela yokuthi isetshenziswe kuphi, ayifani nemalimboleko ngoba yona ijwayele ukuhamba nemigomo nemibandela. Iningi lizitshela ukuthi le mali ilona khambi elizoqeda ububha ezwenikazi lethu kanti iyona imbangela yobubha nezimpi emazweni athize e-Afrika ngoba amavukelambuso ayazi ukuthi uma eke athatha umbuso ngendluzula azobe eseke alithola ithuba lokuncakuza le nkece. Lokhu ngikusho ngoba ngiyazi ukuthi uma umuntu esejwayele izinto zamahhala akajwayele ukuphinde afune ukuyosebenza kunalokho uvele enganywe umoya wobuvila bese kukhula umoya wokuba ngugombela kwesakhe. Abezizwe kudala basibona thina boHlanga ukuthi uma besinika imali sivele sithathe inqwaba yamakhosikazi, noma uma besinika izibhamu sibulalana sodwa, uma sithola amandla kuhulumeni siqhakambisa ubuzwe. Uma ungangikholwa ungahamba uyofunda inkulumo kaPW Botha esihloko sithi; “Rubicon Speech” ubone ukuthi azenzeki yini ezinye zezinto azibalayo eminyakeni eminingi eyadlula. Uma ufuna ukubona ipolitiki edlalwa ngobuhlanga nobuzwe hamba uyobukisisa kahle eKenya nase-Ivory Coast. 

Ngake ngalalela iSILO uMdlokombana mhla sethula inkulumo eNyuvesi yaKwaZulu Ongoye mhla sethweswa iziqu zobuDokotela ngoNhlaba wezi-2018. Kukhona lapho iSILO esakubalula khona ukuthi imali yesibonelelo “yenza abantu babe ngamavila ayisimanga”. Kanjalo-ke kungenzeka ukuthi nabaholi bamazwe ase-Afrika bathi ukukhohlwa izidingo zabantu uma sebedidwe izehla zemali eza bhusende futhi engeke ikhokhwe. 

Le mali kungenzeka futhi yenze abaholi bethu babe ngovilavoco nokuyinto esilimazayo ezwenikazi lethu. Uma kukhona imali eza njengezehla kuhulumeni futhi engenambandela lokhu kwenza ukuthi abantu balwe bodwa ukuze kufinyelele umuntu wabo kuqala ebhodweni eliconsayo. Uzomkhumbula uMengameli ongasekho emhlabeni waseZaire uMnu uMobutu Sese Seko wake wasolwa ngokweba imali elinganiselwa kuzigidigidi eziyisi-$5 aseMelika ezweni lakhe. 

Izwekazi i-Afrika akuqali ngalo ukuthi lidinge usizo lwemali ngoba nawo amazwe ase-Europe ake aludinga kodwa alubanga undendende njengoba kwenzeka kwelase-Afrika, kwaba into yesikhashana. Izwe lase-USA labamba umhlangano eHarvard University ngonyaka we-1947 liholwa uMnu uGeorge C. Marshall owabe enguNgqongqoshe Wezangaphandle (Secretary of State) nalapho kwathathwa khona isinqumo sokusiza amazwe ase-Europe ngesamba semali eyizigidigidi ezingama-$20 ayekhandlwe impi yomhlaba yesibili. 

Izwe nezwe lase-Europe kwabakhona umhlomulo elawucosha kule nkece ukuze bakwazi ukuvuselela iminotho yabo emuva kweMpi YoMhlaba. Lolu sizo lwakwazi ukusiza amazwe anjengeNorway, iFrance, iBritain, iGermany namanye. Into emqoka engifisa siyiqaphela ukuthi la mazwe aqala agcina ukuthola usizo lwemali evela e-USA. Usizo lwemali babeludingela ukwakha ingqalasizinda, amabhilidi, imalimboleko nokunye. Ingakho lolu hlelo lwasebenza.

Owabe enguNdunankulu waseBritain uMnu uTony Blair wakubeka kwacaca ngesikhathi ehambele inkomfa yezisebenzi (Labour Conference, 2001) ukuthi izwekazi i-Afrika liyadabukisa ebusweni bomhlaba ngenxa yobubha obudlangile. Indlela yokuthi lesi simo silungiswe kudingeka ukuthi amazwe acebile asize ngemali. Kwake kwasiza yini lokho? Lutho. Sekuphele iminyaka engamashumi amabili wawasho la mazwi kodwa namanje awukho umehluko. Ngoba ziyajika izinto kulo mhlaba, i-Europe kade kusizwa yona eminyakeni edlule kodwa manje sekuyiyona ethi akusizwe abanye kodwa i-Afrika namanje isalokhu izifune njalo izehla kusukela ngeminyaka yawo-1970. Sukuma Afrika. 

Izwe iGhana lazuza inkululeko ngonyaka we-1957, iKenya ngowe-1963 kanti iMalawi neZambia bazimela ngowe-1964. Izwe iSouth Korea nalo lazimela ngayo leyo minyaka futhi alinalutho olumbiwa phansi njengo woyela, idayimane okanye igolide kodwa namuhla selibalwa nezikhondlakhondla kwezomnotho ngaphandle kwenkongozelo yosizo evela entshonalanga. 

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Uma ubheka izwe iMalawi uma lingase lingalutholi usizo lwemali lingafadalala ngawo lowo nyaka. Le mali yenza ukuthi abaholi babe ngamavila angafuni ngisho nokuphuma ezikhundleni. Asikwazi ukuthi kungathiwa iMalawi neZambia bonke bathole uzimelegeqe ngonyaka we-1964 kodwa namanje abakwazi ngisho ukuzenzela lutho uma sekuza emkhakheni wezempilo. Izwe elalixakwe umalaleveva ngaleyo minya manje selishaywe ngemfe iphindiwe ngoba sekukhona ukhuvethe ngaphezulu. 

Njengoba ngike ngagigiyela ngenhla ukuthi imali ewubhusende yenza ukuthi abaholi babe ngamavila, buka nje namanje cishe alikho nelilodwa izwe lase-Afrika eselikwazile ukuzikhiqizela imishanguzo yokhuvethe. Isizathu salokhu yikho njalo ukuthi abaholi sebajwayela ukuba ngohewa futhi abasazixaki nje ngokusuumela phezulu baxazulule izinkinga zamazwe abo. 

Ngethuka ngoma ngizwa uMengameli waseRwanda uPaul Kagame ethi bona njengezwe abakhethi bafuna noma imuphi umshanguzo abatshelwe ukuthi uyasebenza. Nakuba phela ngaleso sikhathi babungakaziwa ubungozi bokuthi eminye imishanguzo ibuye idale amahlule egazi emizimbeni yabanye abantu.

Into engikade ngayiqaphela ukuthi abezizwe abathandisisi ukusinika imali yokuthi sakhe ingqalasizinda kodwa bafuna ukusinika le mali ezosixabanisa sodwa. Buka nje namuhla uHulumeni uchitha izindodla zemali ebopha abaholi bayizolo kodwa kube kuthiwa ayikho imali yokusiza abafundi emanyuvesi nasemakolishi. Sonke siyazi ukuthi uma uphonsa ithambo phakathi kwezinja eziningi zizolwa zodwa zilibanga. Ile nto eyenzakalayo manje uma kuteleka abafundi abanakwa noma babulawe ngamaphoyisa njengoba kwenzekile kuMnu uMthokozisi Ntumba noma kubulawe amalungu omphakathi afana no-Andries Tatane. Ngingazikhohlwa nezisebenzi eMarikana. 

Izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme ziyanda nenani labafundi liyakhula kodwa akuqondakali ukuthi kungani pho izwekazi lethu lisilele emuva ngayo yonke into. Intengo kawoyela ilokhu yenyuke njalo namagolide alokhu eqhubeke njalo nokumba eqolo, pho sehlulwa yini ukuzimela kwezomnotho. Ngizwile ngabasikibebunda ukuthi uMnyango Wemfundo Ephakeme usuqalile ukwenza amalungiselelo okwakha amanyuvesi amabili eGauteng (Ekurhuleni naseHammaskraal) azogxila kusayensi nobuchwepheshe nakwezokuphepha. 

Engikholwa ukuthi asisakufisi ukukubona kwenzeka ukuthi kwande izikhungo zemfundo kwenyuke nezibalo zabafundi kodwa bese singaluboni ushintsho olulethwa imfundo emnothweni we-Afrika.

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