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Sekuqalile ukungaboni ngasolinye kwesobuMengameli eChad
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Sekuqalile ukungaboni ngasolinye kwesobuMengameli eChad

nguSenzo Ngubane

Kuvamile ukuthi uma kwedlule emhlabeni obekade engumholi wezwe lase-Afrika uma kubhalwa ngaye kugxilwe kakhulu ezintweni ezimbili. 

Okukuqala, okubi ayekade ‘edume’ ngakho kanye nalapho aphambuka khona esadla anhlamvana. Okwesibili, ukwehlukanisa izenzo nezinqumo zaloyo mholi nesimo sezepolitiki ayebhekene naso ezweni nesifunda elikuso, okudala ukuthi kungabuyekezwa ngokugcwele nokuneqiniso konke akwenzayo esengumholi. Lokhu esikhononda ngakho sikubona sekwenzeka emveni kokuvela kombiko wokuthi uMengameli u-Idriss Deby Itno waseChad, uselifulathele elakubo. 

Asihlose kuphika okubi akwenzayo, kepha kubalulekile ukuthi ekubuyekezeni akwenzayo, izinqumo azithatha, yindlela ayephethe ngayo izintambo zombuso, kungakhohlwa ngesimo sezepolitiki eChad, umlando nobudlelwano namanye amazwe, ikakhulukazi angomakhelwane. 

Asiqale ngeqhaza alibamba ezigamekweni zezimpi zaphambilini phakathi kweChad namanye amazwe nezingehlukaniswe nendlela angena ngayo esikhundleni sokuba uMengameli ngowe-1990. UMengameli uDeby waba nedumela futhi wahlonishwa kakhulu eChad phambilini ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sempi eyagcina seyethiwa ngokuthi “yimpi ngamaToyota” (Toyota Wars). Impi ngamaToyota yabe iyingxenye yempi eyayiphakathi kweChad neLibya eyayiqubuke ngowe-1983 mhlazane iLibya igasela elaseChad, nokuyimpi eyabambana kwaze kwaba ngowe-1987 okulapho uDeby aduma khona. 

Wajutshwa uMengameli waseChad uMnu uHabre ngaleyo minyaka ukuba ahole amasotsha aseChad ngowe-1987 nalapho akhombisa ubuciko kwezempi ngokukwazi ukuyidudula eyaseLibya yaze yabuyela ekhaya, waphinde wagasela nenkambu yamasotsha esifundazweni iKufra esiseNingizumu yeLibya. Lobu buhlakani bakhe kule mpi bamenyusela izikhundla, bamenza waba nogazi emasotsheni aseChad, njengomholi ongasabi ukuyihola phambili impi uma isidingo sikhona. 

Lo mlando ngeqhaza alibamba ubalulekile uma kubhekwa imibiko ekhishiwe yokuthi ufe kanjani. Noma okwamanje kungeke kwazeke ngokugcwele ukuthi kwenzakaleni ngelanga alimala ngalo uDeby, imibiko ekhishwe ezokuphepha eChad iveze ukuthi okaDeby ulifulathele elakubo esenkundleni namasotsha akhe itholene phezulu namavukelambuso. 

Umbiko ofana nalona usetshenziselwa ‘ukulondoloza’ umlando ngomholi wabo nokhombisa ukuthi, emehlweni alabo ayebahola, ikakhulukazi izinhlaka zokuphepha eChad, wabe eyiqhawe ebelingayiphaki bese lihlala ngemuva, kodwa  belizinika isikhathi sokuba senkundleni. 

Asingene kweyamavukelambuso nokuthiwa azinze eLibya. Umlando phakathi kweLibya neChad unezigameko eziningi ezikhombisa ukujula nobudlelwano obuyinkimbinkimbi phakathi kwamazwe ahlukene e-Afrika. Ngaphandle kwale mpi esesikhulume ngayo, ubudlelwano phakathi kweLibya neChad babuhlala buguquka kanti okaDeby wayelokhu enesandla kukho konke okwakwenzeka ngisho nangaphambi kokuba abe nguMengameli wezwe. 

Isibonelo, ngowe-1989, emveni kokuba esesolwa ngowayenguMengameli uHabre ukuthi uyingxenye yamatulo okumgudluza esikhundleni, uDeby wabaleka wayobhaca kwelaseLibya nalapho uMengameli uGhaddafi (ongasekho) waba umvikeli wakhe – yize uDeby kwakaziwa ukuthi nguye owahola “impi yamaToyota” neyathela iLibya ngehlazo – kwaze kwafika isikhathi sokuthi abumbe iqembu alihola ukuqumba phansi umbuso kaHabre. 

Lo mlando ngalobu budlelwano uphinde ubaluleke ngoba noma ngabe impi phakathi kweLibya neChad yaphela, izifundazwe ezakhele umungcele owahlukanisayo, bezihlale ziqashwe kakhulu ngenxa yokuthi beziyisizinda samavukelambuso ala mazwe. Ngakho-ke, bekungaqali ukuthi kutheleke amavukelambuso aseChad akade ezinze eLibya kuze kufinyelele ekutheni kuphangalale uMengameli. Lawa mavukelambuso, ebesekwa futhi ezinze esifundazweni saseLibya esingaphansi kukaJenene uHaftar osabambene phezulu noHulumeni waseLibya. 

Mayelana nosekwenzeka emveni kokushona kukaDeby, sekuvele imibono eminingi egxeka isinqumo sokuqokwa kwendodana yakhe, neyingxenye yabaholi bezokuphepha eChad ukuba ibe yibambaMengameli kuze fike isikhathi sokuqoka uHulumeni omusha ezinyangeni ezili-18. Lokhu kugxekwa ngoba kuthiwa kuphambene noMthethosisekelo wezwe othi uma isikhundla sikaMengameli sivukela kumele kubambe uSomlomo wePhalamande. 

Asihlosile ukweseka isinqumo okuthiwa siphambene noMthethosisekelo, kepha lokhu osekunqunyiwe kumele kuhlanganiswe nokwenzekayo esifundazweni esisenkabeni ye-Afrika, ikakhulukazi ngezimpi ezikhona, kanye nobudlelwano obuntengayo namazwe angomakhelwano. 

See Also

Esifundeni esinjengalesi lapho ‘kukhala isicathulo’ soJenene ngisho nakwezepolitiki, bekungeke kubelula ukuthi iChad ingakhombisi ukuthi abaphathi bezokuphepha ezweni, yibo abasabambe izintambo zombuso. 

Okunye okungeke kubalekelwe wukuthi ukugasela kwamavukelambuso, yisiqalo sezigameko ezisazolandela lapho bezophindelela ngemizamo yokuqumba phansi umbuso waseChad, ngaleyo ndlela, akulula ukuthi sibasole abaholi bezokuphepha ngesinqumo sabo sokuphuthuma bakhombise ukuthi yibo abazoqhubeka nokuhola kwezepolitiki. 

Ngesikhathi sikaDeby iChad bekungelona izwe elinokuba sivivi kweyamazwe asenkabeni ye-Afrika, ibingenelela lapho ibona kunezinkinga khona obekufaka nokungananazi ngokuthumela amasotsha ayo kwamanye amazwe, njengoba yenza ekulweni nontamo iqinile kulesi sifunda. Akulindelekile ukuba leli lizwe, emveni kwalesi sehlakalo, lenze okwehlukile, isiqinisekiso sokuthi lizohamba ezinyathelweni zangaphambili, yiso lesi sinqumo sokusheshe kuqokwe elinye isotsha ukuba liphathe izwe. 

Okunye osekugqanyiswa eyobudlelwano lo Mengameli abenabo namazwe angaphandle ikakhulukazi awase-Europe okubalwa iFrance. Kulokhu, isigcwele imibono embeka njengaloyo owayehlezi esikhundleni ngenxa yokuthi wesekwa yiFrance, nokumenza abukeke njengomholi obethatha izinqumo ezivuna leli lizwe kuphela. Ukubuyekeza lobu budlelwano ngale ndlela lokhu kuyinkinga ngoba kwenza abaholi base-Afrika bathatheke njengalabo abangakwazi ukuzicabangela. Kepha, umlando ngalo mholi unazo izigameko eziningi ezikhombisa ukuthi zaziba khona izingqinamba kubudlelwano bakhe namazwe aseNyakatho. 

Isibonelo, umsindo owaqubuka ngowezi-2006, mhlazane okaDeby enza okungalindelekile wakhononda ngokuthi iChad ayihlomuli ngokugcwele kumkhiqizo kawoyela ongahluziwe oqhamuka eChad. Kunalokho, kuhlomula kakhulu izinkampani eziqhamuka kumazwe aphesheya. 

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