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Alupheli uzungu olwakhelwa elaseDemocratic Republic of Congo
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Alupheli uzungu olwakhelwa elaseDemocratic Republic of Congo

nguSenzo Ngubane

Eminyakeni engama-59 edlule mhla zili-17 kuMasingana uzungu olwakhiwa ngabathize, lwadala ukuba izakhamuzi zaseDemocratic Republic of Congo (DRC), izwekazi lonkana, namafelandawonye obulungiswa emhlabeni jikelele, balahlekelwe umholi okwakusabhekwe olukhulu ngaye, uPatrice Lumumba. ULumumba wabulawa ngesihluku kungakapheli ngisho eziyisi-6 izinyanga aqokelwa isikhundla sokuba nguNdunankulu waleli lizwe elaselithole inkululeko kwelaseBelgium ngowe-1960. ULumumba, owayeyingxenye yezishoshovu ezazilwela inkululeko yeDRC kwaba nguye kuphela kubo bonke owazithola esengcindezini eyayiqhamuka emazweni aseNyakatho.

Izinkulumo namazwi akhe ayehlaba kwephukele kwawasenyakatho, negalelo lakhe ekumiseni isibindi kwizakhamuzi zaseCongo ukuze zibone isidingo nokubaluleka kokuzimela, lalifaka itwetwe kwabaningi. Ukwesatshwa kwakhe ngongqozi ayenalo ukufeza ngokugcwele eyenkululeko kubonakala ngokuthi uzungu lokumusoconga aluthathanga isikhathi eside. Ababenehloso yokuba leli lizwe lingakhululeki noma seliyitholilie ‘inkululeko’ baphuthuma bamubulala engakwazi ngisho ukukhombisa ukuthi wayeyoba umholi oqotho yini noma cha ekuhambeni kwesikhathi eCongo.

Noma ngabe umlando ukhombisa futhi seyandile nemibhalo eqinisekisa ukuthi yisandla samazwe angaphandle esabulala uLumumba; okungeke kubalekelwe ngukuthi abakhapheli balesi shoshovu, nokuyibo abenza kubelula ukuthi abulawe yilabo ayeyingxenye nabo kweyomuzabalazo wokukhulula leli lizwe. Bathathu ababengabaholi ababalekayo kwiziwombe ezavela emveni kokuba lelizwe likhululekile ngoNhlangulana we-1960, kuze kufinyelele ekubulaweni kukaLumumba. Owokuqala uKasavubu, owabe eqokelwe isikhundla sokuba uMengameli ngowe-1960.

Kungakapheli maseko uHulumeni omusha uqokiwe, kwasuka imibhikisho emadolobheni ehlukene ezweni, eyadala ukuthi iBelgium ithumele amasotsha ukuvikela izakhamuzi zayo, ne-United Nations (UN) yathumela amasotsha ayezoqapha isimo kodwa engenamvume yokweseka uHulumeni omusha. Lokhu kwaphoqa uLumumba ukuba acele usizo kwelaseRussia neyavuma okwadala ukuba uKasavubu, njengoMengameli ehlise uLumumbu esikhundleni sokuba nguNdunankulu.

Lesi sinqumo sikaKasavubu sacijisa imikhonto eyabe isivele isilolelwe uLumumba ngabathize. Owesibili uMoïse Tshombe, owayephumelele ukhetho lokuba uMengameli wesifundazwe iKatanga. UTshombe, kwathi nxa engavumelani nezinqumo zikaLumumba zokuqoka oNgqongqoshe bakaHulumeni, wadalula ukuthi iKatanga, nokuyisifundazwe esimumethe umnotho wezimbiwa eDRC, isizoba yizwe elizimele.

Ukuze akwazi ukusimela lesi sinqumo, wacela usizo kwelaseBelgium, neyavuma, okwadala ukuba uLumumba amgxeke wathi uthengisa ngomhlaba obesekuthiwa usubuyile. Lesi sinyathelo sikaTshombe, njengaso esikaKasavubu, saqinisa amatulo ezifiki okuthi agadle kuLumumba. Owesithathu uMobutu Sese Seko, owayeqokwe nguKasavubu kanye noLumumba ukuba abe nguMkhuzi wempi kaHulumeni omusha. Kwathi ngesikhathi ixovene phakathi kukaTshombe noLumumba, uMobutu wase ethola intuba yokugaqela esinye isikhundla. Kunokuba agcine ngokuba umkhuzi wamasotsha, wadalula kumazwe omhlaba ukuthi izintambo zombuso seziphethwe nguye, ayisekho eka Kasavuku noLumumba. ULumumba waqhubeka wazama ngakho konke ukuphikisa isinqumo sikaMobutu, nokuvimba uKasavubu ukuba abuyele esikhundleni, kwanhlanga zimuka nomoya ngoba kungekho ndlela yokuthola abaseki, ngaphakathi ezweni noma ngaphandle.

Akupholanga maseko, emveni kokuba uMobutu ezibeke esikhundleni ngoMandulo we-1960, kwavela ukuthi lesi sishoshovu uLumumba sesibulewe ekuqaleni kowe-1961. Akugcizelelwe ukuthi abangaphandle abaqinisekisa ukubulawa kukaLumuba kepha ukwehluleka kwalabaholi ababeqavile eDRC ukubona ngaso linye, namatulo okuphikisa okaLumumba nokungamuvumeli ukuba asebenzise isikhundla ayeqokelwe sona ukwakha izwe kwaba nomthelela ekutheni abulawe.

Lolu zungu’ lwangaphambili kuseyinto esaqhubeka nanamuhla, nalapho abaholi baseDRC begxila kulokho abangakuzuza kepha bangayigqizi qakala eyezakhamuzi, nalapho amazwe angomakhelwane kanye nawaseNyakatho esazigwazela ibhece kuleli lizwe nalithatha njengenkundla yokuzenzela noma yini.

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Ithi nyawo ngibelethe iGambia kuCommonwealth

Kukhulunywa nje, emveni kweminyaka uLumumba abulawa, iphupho lakhe lokubona iDRC enokuthula, ekwazi ukuphucula impilo yezakhamuzi, nesebenzisa umnotho wayo ukudlondlobalisa izwe, alikafezeki. Kepha, njengoba kwenzeka ngaphambili, asaqhubeka amatulo okuqola lelizwe ngalokho elinakho. Isifundazwe esiseMpumalanga yezwe nesifaka iKatanga, sisalokhu singumhume wabaphangi bombuso abaqhamuka ngaphakathi ezweni kanye namazwe angomakhelwane. Isibonole, yiqembu elibizwa nge-Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) elizinze kulesi sifundazwe nokuliyo elisolwa ngokubulala izakhamuzi ezevile kuma-23 ngesihluku esinyantisa igazi kuZibandlela nyakenye.

I-ADF, ingenye yabavukelimbuso abazicanaselayo eDRC, kodwa kube sekwaphela iminyaka amazwe ehlukene ngaphansi kwe-United Nations (UN) kanye ne-African Union (AU) athumela amasotsha ukuyoqapha isimo kulesi sifundazwe. Ngokwe-UN, inani lalabo abajutshwe kulesi sifundazwe ngenhloso yokwakha ukuthula libalelwa ezi-20,039, elihlanganisa amasotsha ayizi-15,098.

Leli nani elingaka lamasotsha naqhamuka emazweni ehlukene, nosekuphele iminyaka eyevile kweli-10 ajutshwa, awakakwazi ukufeza lokhu ayekuthunyiwe. Kunalokho, kulokhu kuthiwa isimo kulesi sifundazwe siyimpicabadala edinga ubuchule ukuze sixazululeke. Bathi bekhuluma lokho, bese kuyaxaka ukuthi lo mnotho wezimbiwa osabalele kulesi sifundazwe wona ‘awuphazamiseki’ ngoba izinkampani ezahlukene, zesekwa ngoHulumeni bazo ziyakwazi ukumba bese ziphuma nezikutholayo.

Ukube ngempela isimo saseDRC siyinkinga kangako, ngabe ayikho imboni eqoka ukutshala imali yayo khona. Ngamanye amazwi, izakhamuzi zaseDRC zisashaywa ngemfe iphindiwe; ngoba bakhona abazuzayo ngalezinxushunxushu okuthiwa zothatha iminyaka ukuthola isisombululo.

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