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Yazi kabanzi ngesabelomali seNingizimu Afrika

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Isabelomali sezwe sidingidwa futhi sigunyazwe yiPhalamende. Minyaka yonke ophathiswe uMnyango Wezezimali wethula isabelomali ePhalamende bese sixoxwa emakomitini alo kube nenkulumompikiswano ePhalamende naseNdlini Yemikhandlu Yezifundazwe (National Council of Provinces) bese kuyavotwa. Lokhu kwenziwa ngoba uHulumeni akakwazi ukusebenzisa imali yomphakathi ngaphandle kokugunyazwa yiPhalamende.

Siyini isabelomali?

Isabelomali siwuhlelo lonyaka uHulumeni alubekile ukuzuza nokuthi ingasetshenziswa kanjani imali ukufeza lokho azibekele khona. Siyithuluzi lezomnotho elibalulelekile elisetshenziswa nguHulumeni. Inhloso ukuqinisekisa ukuthi uMbuso unazo izinsiza ozidingayo ukwenza umsebenzi, ukhwakha izimo ezizokhulisa umnotho nokucacisa izinto eziseqhulwini lwezinhlelo zawo. Isabelomali sinezingxenye ezimbili okuyimali engena kuHulumeni naleyo ayisebenzisayo. Eqinisweni, siwukubeka ezingeni elifanayo izinsiza ezikhona (okuyimali) nezidingo zabantu.

Ithathwa kuphi imali eyabiwayo?

UMbuso kawusoze waba nemali eyanele ukufeza zonke izidingo zezakhamuzi yingakho uma uhlela ukusebenzisa imali engaphezulu kwengakwazi ukuyiqongelela ngentela (defi cit spending) kumele uyiboleke. Lokhu kuba nomthelela ongemuhle ngomuso ngoba kufanele kukhokhwe inzalo yemali ebolekiwe okusho ukuthi ibancane ekhona ukufeza ezinye izidingo. Okuyiyona ndlela elekelela kakhulu uHulumeni yintela ebanjwa kumuntu osebenzayo neyezimpahla nokudla. Imali eqoqwa ngentela yabasebenzayo ilinganiselwa kumaphesenti angama-34 kuthi eyeVAT kube angama-27. Imali eqoqwe uHulumeni igcinwa esikhwameni esibizwa ngokuthi iNational Revenue Fund kanti uma izokhishwa kusetshenziswa ukuvivinywa kwesabelo i-Appropriation Bill.

Ukulungiselela isabelomali

Iningi lethu lizwa ngesabelomali uma sekukhulunywa ngaso ePhalamende kalazi ukuthi kuthatha izinyanga ezili-14 ukusilungiselela. Ngesikhathi sethulwa, esonyaka olandelayo sisuke sesivele sesihlanganiswa. Ukusenza kuthatha isikhathi eside ngoba kunemigudu edla isikhathi okumele kudlulwe kuyona kuqala. Isabelomali ngasinye siyingxenye yohlelo lweminyaka emithathu oluqhubekayo olubizwa ngeMedium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF). Imali ezosetshenziswa ngonyaka wokuqala kulena emithathu imile ayiguquki kanti eyemibili elandelayo iyabuyekezwa kumzungezo wesabelomali olandelayo.

Uhlaka lwemali ekhona

Ukuze uHulumeni ukwazi ukwaba imali ozoyisebenzisa udinga ukwazi ukuthi uzoba nemali engakanani esikhwameni (fi scal framework). UMnyango Wezezimali neBhangengodla lakha isingathekiso seminyaka emithathu ukuthi kungase kwenzekeni emnothweni wezwe ukuhlawumbisela imali uHulumeni angakwazi ukuyiqoqa ngentela. Ngokulandela lokhu, uMnyango ube usulungisa uhlaka lwemali kaHulumeni. Abaqoqi bentela, iSouth African Revenue Service (SARS), banomthwalo wokuqoqa intela ephakanyiswe kusabelomali. Iminyango ezifundazweni ihlola isimo ibheke izidingo ezikhona nokuthi ihlela ukuhlangabezana nazo kanjani. Ibe seyenza iziphakamiso zezabelomali ezixhumanisa ukuhlinzekwa kwabantu ngezidingo nemali uHulumeni okufanele ayisebenzise ukuhlangabezana nalezo zidingo.

Ukwabiwa kwemali

See Also
Ngabe sekungukushabalala kukaManana ePhalamende

Kuyaxoxiswana ngendla okuzohlukaniselwana ngayo imali ekhona phakathi kukaHulumeni kazwelonke, izifundazwe noHulumeni Basekhaya. Eyezifundazwe yabelwa zonke eziyisi-9 kubhekelelwe izimo ezithile ezihlanganisa isibalo sabantu nezinga lobubha. Amakhabhinethi ezifundazwe abela iminyango yawo. Kunohlaka olwakhiwe uMthethosisekelo wezwe, iFiscal and Financial Commission, olwenza izincomo ngendlela engachemile yokwaba imali.

Sihlanganiswa kanjani isabelomali

Kuhlanganiswa uhlaka lwemali ekhona, iziphakamiso zezabelomali nezincomo zokwahlukaniselana ngemali ekhona. Kube sekuthathwa izinqumo kubhekwa okuseqhulwini lwemigomo kaHulumeni kazwelonke nowezifundazwe okube sekulandelwa ukucaciswa kwemigomo ezolawula izinqumo zikaHulumeni nokuzobekwa eqhulwini kusabelomali sangaleso sikhathi. Izifundazwe zibe sezilungisisa izabelomali zazo eziziphakamisile ukuze zihambisane nale migomo.

Ukwethulwa kweziphakamiso zezabelomali ePhalamende

UNgqongqoshe Wezezimali wethula lezi ziphakamiso kanye nemithethosivivinywa emithathu kuNational Assembly okuyiDivision of Revenue Bill (ecacisa ukuthi imali izohlukaniswa kanjani ngokulinganayo ezigabeni zikaHulumeni kulowo nyaka), i-Appropriation Bill (ebeka eceleni imali kaHulumeni kazwelonke nokuthi iminyango nezikhungo zakhe bazohlukaniselana kanjani imali) ne-Income Tax Law Amendment Bill (echibiyela imithetho yentela eyahlukene ukuqinisekisa ukuthi uHulumeni uyakwazi ukuqongelela imali oyidingela ukuyisebenzisa ngalowo nyaka). Uma ikomiti lezezimali ePhalamende seliyicubungulisisile kuba sekuba nenkulumompikiswano kuNational Assembly bese kuyavotwa. Ibe isithunyelwa kuNCOP ukuyibheka. Ngenxa yokuthi iDivision of Revenue Bill ithinta izifundazwe, kuphoqelekile ukuthi iNCOP ibe yingxenye yokuthathwa kwesinqumo ngokwenziwa kwayo ibe umthetho.

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