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Kuntwela ezansi ngomnotho wamazwe ase-Afrika
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Kuntwela ezansi ngomnotho wamazwe ase-Afrika

nguGugulethu Xaba

Izwekazi i-Afrika libukeka lthuthuka kancane kancane kwezomnotho kuphela kufanele lingavumeli okudonsela phansi le nqubekelaphambili

 

IZWEKAZI i-Afrika liyikhaya lamanye amazwe abalwa nahamba phambili ngakwezomnotho emhlabeni. Lokhu kudalwa kakhulu ngukuthi leli lizwekazi linezimbiwa, amahlathi, kanye nowoyela ukubala okumbalwa. Kubikwa ukuthi bazobe bebalelwa ezigidigidini ezilishumi ngonyaka wezi-2050 abantu abazobe behlala emazweni ase-Afrika. Ngenxa yalokhu amazwe kudingeka ukuthi ahlale ethuthuka njalo ngakwezomnotho ukuze isimo sempilo siqhubeke sibengcono. Nakuba zikhona izingqinamba kwamanye amazwe okubalwa kuzo izimpi zezombusazwe, inkohlakalo kwabanye ohulumeni, izifo kanye nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu amazwe asaqhubeka nokwenza konke okusemandleni ukuqinisekisa ukuthi buyaqedwa ububha. Umnotho wase-Afrika eminyakeni edlule ulokhu ukhula ngamaphesenti amahlanu kuya kwayisishiyagalolunye ngonyaka, kanti kulindeleke ukuthi uqhubeke ngegiya eliphezulu eminyakeni emihlanu ezayo.

Ngokombiko obizwa ngeLions on the Move: The Progress and Potential of African Economies, umnotho ohlanganisiwe wase-Afrika kuzoshaya unyaka wezi-2020 usuhleli ku- $2.6 trillion.

Ukubonakala kokundlondlobala kwamazwe ase-Afrika kuqale eminyakeni yakamuva lapho amanye alawa mazwe ethathe isikhathi sokuhlaziyisisa iminotho okukade kuthiwa ithwele kanzima. Izwe lokuqala elenze lokhu kube iNigeria nyakenye kuMbasa lapho lazimemezela lona njengezwe elizihola phambili ngokomnotho e-Afrika, lidlula iNingizimu Afrika esihlale iminyaka esicongweni.

NgokweNational Bureau of Statistics yaseNigeria, umnotho wakuleliya lizwe ubungabalwa ngendlela efanele eminyakeni edlule nokuyinkinga leliya lizwe eliyilungise ngokuhlanganyela neWorld Bank, i-International Monetary Fund kanye ne-African Development Bank. Kutholakale ukuthi umnotho waleliya lizwe uphindaphindeke kabili kunezinga obekuthiwa ukulo. Isibalo esisha, esathatha isikhathi esingangonyaka ukusibala sisuke ezigidigidini ezingama-$262 saya ezigidigidini ezingama-$488. Naso lesi sibalo akuwona umnotho waseNigeria ncimishi njengoba sishiya ngaphandle umnotho wezolimo.

INigeria, enowoyela, iwahola phambili amazwe ase-Afrika ngokomnotho kodwa isimo sempilo sakhona yiso esidonsela leliya lizwe emuva isikhathi esiningi. Njengamanje leliya lizwe libhekene nenkinga yezidlamlilo ezithi zilandela inkolelo yamaMuslim, iBoko Haram. Leli qembu selibulale lathumba inqwaba yabantu kanti ezindaweni zabantu abalandela inkolo yobuKrestu kuhlale kunovalo lokuthi bangathushuka noma yinini. Ngaphezu kwalokhu okwenza ingabonakali ingcebo yaleliya lizwe inkinga yesibalo sabantu abahlala kulo. NgoNtulikazi, onyakeni wezi-2014 abantu abahlala eNigeria bebebalelwa ezigidigidini ezili-178, nokungamaphesenti amabili abantu esibalo sabantu abahlala emhlabeni.

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INingizimu Afrika nakuba ilele isibili, ayisele kude kakhulu nezwe iNigeria. Leli lizwe linomnotho obalelwa ezigidigidini ezingama-$341. INingizimu Afrika igabe kakhulu ngezimbiwa, igolide kanye nedayimane. Kodwa lezi zimboni zombili akusizona zodwa ezifaka imali emnothweni wakuleli. Kunemboni yezolimo, imboni yezemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene okubalwa kuyo eyokwakha, eyokugqoka kanye neyokuthutha. Nakuba sezikhona izinhlelo eziningi zokuqinisa umnotho waseNingizimu Afrika, futhi uhulumeni esesebenze ngokuzikhandla ukubuyisa imisebenzi eyalahleka ngesikhathi kuntengantenga ezomnotho emhlabeni ngonyaka wezi-2008, kusenokuqhaqhazela ngesimo somnotho kuleli. Okufaka abantu bakuleli itwetwe ukunyuka kwezinga le-inflation, esingayichaza ngokuthi ukukhula kwezinga lokubiza kwezinto ezithengwayo okubalwa kuzo uwoyela, ukudla, izindlu, izimoto kanye nokunye. Irepo rate ngenyanga edlule isuswe kumaphesenti ayisi-5.75 yabekwa kwayisithupha. Ibhange lagcina ukunyusa lesi sibalo ngonyaka wezi-2014 kuNtulikazi. Kulokhu kwenzelwe ukuzama ukuvimbela ukundlondlobala kwe-inflation kuleli elokhe ingqongqoze njalo. Okunye okubambezela umnotho wakuleli izinkinga ezibhekene nezwe okubalwa kuzo ukusatshalaliswa kukagesi. Ukuqedwa kwokakhiwa kweMedupi Power Station nokho kulokozisa inhlansi yethemba yokuthi sesibaliwe isikhathi sokukhawulwa kukagesi kuleli.

Elinye izwe elilandele ezinyathelweni zeNigeria ngokubala kabusha izinga lomnotho kube yiKenya. Nyakenye kuMandulo iKenya imemezele ukuthi umnotho walo usuhlezi ezigidigidini ezingama-$55. IKenya yiyo ehola amazwe aseNingizimu Mpumalanga kanye nemaphakathi lase-Afrika ngokomnotho. Uma iqhathaniswa nawo wonke amazwe ase-Afrika nokho ilele isikhombisa. Umnotho walo ugxile kakhulu kwezolimo, nokuyimboni eqashe inqwaba yabantu kulo. IKenya ihwebelana kakhulu ngemithi yetiye kanye nekhofi.

Nakuba i-Egypt ibhekene nezinkinga zezombusazwe kanye nezimpi eseziqhubeke kusukela ngonyaka wezi-2009, isalele isithathu emazweni ahamba phambili ngokomnotho e-Afrika. Umnotho walo ubalelwa ezigidigidini ezingama-$284. E-Egypt umnotho uqiniswe ezolimo, ezokuvakasha kanye nezimbiwa ezisatholakala ngaphansi komhlaba. Umnotho wakhona nokho wehlile eminyakeni edlule njengoba uhulumeni uhlale uguquka ngenxa yezimpi zezombusazwe ezisaqhubeka. Kokunye abantu sebelahlekelwa ukwethemba ukuthi izinto eziqinisa umnotho zizoqhubeka zinakekelwe ngendlela nakuba kuqhubeka ukungqubuzana kwezombusazwe.

Kwamanye amazwe ahamba phambili ngokomnotho e-Afrika kubalwa:

  • I-Algeria enomnotho obalelwa ezigidigidini ezingama-$227. Leli lizwe lingelesine ohlwini lwamazwe acebile e-Afrika ngowoyela nangegesi okuyikho abahwebelana ngakho kakhulu namanye amazwe. Liphinde libe namatshe angajwayelekile emhlabeni abizwa ngezimabuli nokuyiwo abaqala ukuhwebelana ngawo nabantu baseRome ngezikhathi zakudala. Inhlokodolobha yakuleli lizwe i-Algiers idume ngobuhle bezakhiwo zakhona zakudala kanti nayo iheha izivakashi eziningi. Umnotho walo nawo ubukeka ungathikamezwanga izimpi zezombusazwe ezifana nezase-Egypt ebezaziwa nge-Arab Spring.
  • Izwe elilele isihlanu ohlwini lwamazwe ahamba phambili ngokwezomnotho yiMorocco. Linomnotho obalelwa ezigidigidini ezili-$112 kanti yilo elihola phambili amazwe aseNyakatho ne-Afrika. Umnotho walo uqiniswe ezokuvakasha, ubuchwephesehe bezokuxhumana, umkhiqizo wempahla yokwakha kanye nezolimo.
  • Elilele isithupha emazweni ahamba phambili ngakwezomnotho, iSudan. Umnotho waseSudan ubalelwa ezigidigidini ezili-$112. Nakuba linowoyela leli lizwe, amaphesenti angama-30 omnotho walo alethwa ezolimo. Ukotini namakinati yikhona abahwebelana namanye amazwe ngakho kakhulu. Yinto ongeyibone emsikweni kakotini ehlukene ukuthi ivela eSudan kodwa ukotini omningi emhlabeni usatshalaliswa yiyo.
  • Izwe elilele isikhombisa ohlwini yiKenya esesiyibalile ngenhla, kanti ilandelwa ngemuva yizwe lase-Angola, nalo eliqukethe uwoyela negesi. Ngaphezu kwalokhu kuleli lizwe kukhona amadayimane kanye namahlathi amahle aseqinise ezolimo. Leli lizwe lisazakha kabusha emva kwempi eyadonsa kusuka ngonyaka we-1975 kuya kowezi-2005. Imizamo ye-Angola yokuvusa umnotho wayo igxile kakhulu ekudayiseni uwoyela negesi. Leli lizwe lisezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ingqalasizinda yenhlokodolobha iLuanda ukuze ihehe abavakashi nakho okungaba nomthelela omuhle kwezomnotho wakulelizwe obalelwa ezigidigidini ezingama-49 zamadola aseMelika.
  • Izwe eliyisishiyagalolunye ohlwini yiLibya elicishe lilingane ne-Angola njengoba nalo umnotho walo uhleli ezigidigidini ezingama-$49. Amaphesinti angama-80 omnotho waseLibya angeniswa yimboni kawoyela njengoba leli lizwe licebile ngawo futhi liqukethe uwoyela ukudlula onke amanye amazwe ase-Afrika.  Ngaphandle kwalokhu leli lizwe liphinde libe negesi.
  • Izwe eliqedela loluhlu lamazwe ahamba phambili ngakwezomnotho e-Afrika yiTunisa nayo elinganayo neLibya ne-Angola ngokwezinga lezomnotho ezigidigidini ezingama-$49. Insika yomnotho wakuleli lizwe uwoyela kanye nokukhiqiza amalungu emzimba yezimoto ezihlukahlukene. Okunye okunomthelela omuhle kumnotho wakuleli lizwe ezokuvakasha njengoba abantu behlale betheleka njalo abanye babo abagcina sebeliphendula ikhaya.
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