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Izingane zinamalungelo futhi zivikelwe yimithetho yezwe
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Izingane zinamalungelo futhi zivikelwe yimithetho yezwe

nguSabelo Mbatha

Leli sonto esikulo libizwa ngokuthi iChild Protection Week ngalo kugcizelelwa ukubaluleka kokuvikelwa kwezingane namalungelo azo. Muva nje asandile amacala okushushumbiswa kwezingane.


Kulolu shicilelo sibuyekeza eminye imithetho ethinta izingane esake sakhuluma ngayo kuleli phephandaba. UMthetho i-Immigration Act (South African Citizenship Act 88 of 1995), uma uchaza umuntu ongumsinsi wokuzimilela uthi ngumuntu ozalelwe kulelo lizwe futhi nabazali bakhe bazalelwe kulo.

Lo Mthetho njengokuchitshiyelwa kwawo ngowezi-2004 uthi lowo onamaphepha aqondile okuba umhlali wakulelo lizwe unawo wonke amalungelo anikezwa umhlali wakulelo lizwe asemithethweni yezwe nakuMthethosisekelo. UMthetho obizwa ngokuthi i-Identification Act 68 of 1997, uthi lowo muntu kumele anikwe umazisi waseNingizimu Afrika.

Ngokomthetho elawula ukubhaliswa kwezingane ezizelwe nesezidlulile emhlabeni, umuntu ongeyena owaseNingizimu Afrika uchazwa njengalowo onezincwadi zokuba ezweni zesikhashana lapho kuhlanganisa labo abangababaleki nabasuke bekhosele okwesikhashana kodwa bevikelekile ngaphansi komthetho iRefugees Act.
Uma laba abakuleli kwenzeka bethola izingane, lokho akusho ukuthi lezo zingane sekumele zibe nomazisi bakuleli, kodwa abazali bazo kumele ukuthi ngesikhathi befaka izicelo zomazisi bazo bakuveze ukuthi bona ngabakuliphi izwe okuyosho ukuthi nezingane ziyobe zingelakulelo lizwe.

Uma lezi zingane sezizelwe futhi sekwaziwa uMqondisi Jikelele woMnyango Wezasekhaya uzobe esekhipha isitifiketi sokuzalwa esingenayo inombolo kamazisi uma labo bazali kungebona abakuleli. Njengoba sekuke kwacaciswa abantu abangabokuzalwa ezweni kukhona imithetho abavikelekile kuyo namalungelo athile abanawo abokufika abangenawo.
Ngasohlangothini lwabantu abasuke sebengaphakathi ezweni kodwa abangenazo izingane abazithole sebelapha, kubalulekile ukwazi ukuthi uthini umthetho ngokuhlaliswa kwabo noma lapho kumele basuswe endaweni abasuke behlala kuyo.

Abantu abangabokufika kuleli banelungelo lokuhlaliswa okwesikhashana endaweni ethile.
NgokweSigaba 4 soMthetho iPrevention of Illegal Eviction ne-Unlawful Occupation of Land Act 19 we-1998, uthi uma umuntu esehlale endaweni isikhathi esiyizinyanga eziyisithupha, inkantolo ingakwazi ukuthi imkhiphe kuleyo ndawo uma ibona lokho kufanelekile, inqobo nje uma kuzobhekwa zonke izimo. Okubalulekile ukuthi lowo osuke esuswa endaweni kubhekelelwe ukuthi yiyiphi enye indawo angakwazi ukugoba kuyo amadlangala. Uma umhlaba kungokamasipala kumele kube yiwo owenza ezinye izinhlelo ukuze osusiwe atholelwe enye indawo.

Ecaleni likaChapelgate Properties v Unlawful Occupiers of Erf lowezi-2016 kwakuwukuthi uMasipala waseJohannesburgh unaso yini isibopho sokuzamela enye indawo abantu ababengene ngokungemthetho endaweni yenkampani iChapelgate Properties. Iningi labantu ababengene kule ndawo ngokungemthetho babeyingxenye yamaphesenti angama-60 kwakungebona abaseNingizimu Afrika.

Okwakufakazela lokho ukuthi nezincwadi ezibagunyaza ukuba kuleli babengenazo. Umsebenzi wenkantolo waba lula ngoba yanquma ukuba basuswe. Inkantolo yabuye yanquma ukuba uMasipala utholele indawo abanye ababesusiswe okwakuvela ukuthi bayintula ngempela indawo, kodwa nalokho kwakunombandela ngoba kwakumele baveze ukuthi banazo izimvume zokuba eNingizimu Afrika.

Okunye okwabe kuwumbandela ukuthi bazifakile izicelo zokungena ezweni njengababaleki. UMehluleli uSpilg wakhipha isinqumo esithi abokufika kuleli futhi abangene ngokungemthetho abakwazi ukuthi bangashiywa ngaphandle ekunikezelweni ngezindawo zokuhlala zesikhashana. Konke lokhu ngokukaMehluleli kuncike eMnyangweni Wezasekhaya. Ekubhekeleleni abokufika kuleli abangene ngokungemthetho kuhle ukubanikeza izindlu zesikhashana kodwa lezo zindlu akumele zibe yindlela yokungena ezweni nokuzitholela izindlu zamahhala.

Oshiywe nezingane unelungelo lobuzali eligcwele. Umthethwo Wezingane owaziwa ngeChildren’s Act 38 of 2005 uhamba ugcinephi ekubhekeleleni amalungelo wonke ezingane. Umbuzo omkhulu ngothi noma lo Mthetho uvikela izingane uphinde ukubeke ngokusobala ukuthi nalowo izingane ezisuke zishiywe ngaphansi kwesandla sakhe angakwazi ukunikwa eminye imisebenzi namalungelo phezu kwezingane okubizwa ngokuthi iParental Responsibilities and Rights.

Ilungelo loshiywe nengane

Leli lungelo linikeza lowo osuke eqaphe ingane amandla okuthi angayitholela noma yisiphi isikole abona ukuthi sizoyinika imfundo engcono futhi izovikeleka kuso. Kusenemibuzo ngokuthi bangaki abantu abadala abanakekela izingane abanalolu lwazi.
Uyaqhuba futhi uMthetho Wezingane 38 wezi-2005 uthi abantu abadala abanakekela izingane ezineminyaka engaphansi kweli-18 bafaka isicelo ngaphansi kweSigaba 24 nokuyisicelo seGuardianship, kepha bangaki abakwazi ukufaka lezo zicelo kubameli babakhokhele ukuze noma bedlula emhlabeni abazali okuyinto ejwayelekile ukwenzeka izingane zisale zivikelekile nosele nazo kungabi khona okumphazamisayo.

Kubalulekile ukuthi abazali noma ngabe bakuziphi izimo banakekele futhi bondle izingane zabo abazishiye esandleni sabantu ngokuvamisile okusuke kungabantu abadala. Lokhu kumele bakwenze noma ngabe bahola imali engakanani.

See Also

Kubalulekile futhi ukufundiswa kwabantu abasuke beseli nezingane ukuthi akulona ihlazo ukufaka isicelo sesondlo eNkantolo Yesondlo. Lokhu bangakwenza uma bebona ukuthi abazali abazondli izingane zabo ngakho leyo mali ingalekelela ekubakhuliseni.
Abantu abahlala nezingane ngenxa yokubiza kwezindleko zabameli bangaya ngisho nakwabahlinzeka ngezeluleko zezomthetho zamahhala okuyiLegal Aid bacele usizo mayelana nesicelo seGuardianship eNkantolo YaBehluleli noma bayocela izinsiza kubameli besihe (Pro Bono) abakhona kuzo zonke izinkantolo basizakale. Kulezi zindawo luyatholakala usizo uma ungasebenzi ungenamali.

Isidingo salezi zicelo engikhuluma ngazo ngezokuthi uma kudingeka kuthathwe izinqumo ezinqala ngengane njengokushada ingakayihlanganisi iminyaka eli-18, noma uma kumele ithathelwe iphasiphothi ilibangise emazweni aphesheya, uma bekungaya ngokuthi kulindwa umzali okude noma umzali ongasekho emhlabeni lolu daba lungalungisiwe ingane ivaleleka amathuba kanjalo.

Kuyaye kuthi uma sesifakiwe lesi sicelo, iNkantolo YaBehluleli idlulisele ifayela emaHhovisi eFamily Advocate ukuze kuhlaziywe kabanzi ngenhlalakahle yengane kubuzwe nalowo ohlala nayo kanye nayo ingane imbala mayelana nenhlalakahle yayo ukuze kwenziwe umbiko ozobuyiselwa eNkantolo YaBehluleli mayelana nokunikwa kukagogo noma umkhulu ingane ngokusemthethweni.

Okunye okubalulekile ngukuthi ohlala nengane ukhuluma nobani uma ebhekana nezinkinga ekuyikhuliseni. Impendulo ngukuthi angakhuluma nosonhlalakahle. Okunye okungakhulunywa kodwa okuliqiniso ukuthi bayahlukumezeka abantu abadala behlukunyezwa izingane abasuke beshiywe nazo bezikhulisa. Uma izingane zihlupha ngendelelo nangokuhlukumeza abantu abahlala nazo noma abadala kumele bakhumbule ukuthi bavikelekile emthethweni obizwa nge-Older Persons Act 13 of 2006).

Lona ngumthetho omdala kodwa abantu ezweni lonke abangafundisekile kahle ngawo okwenza ukuthi noma bezithola benezinkinga bangazi ukuthi baphume babhekephi. Kukhona konke esesikubekile ngenxa kubuyela ekutheni kuyisibopho sabazali ukuzikhulisela izingane zabo, kepha uma kwenzeka izingane zigcina zikhuliswa ngabanye abantu njengabadala bomndeni noma izihlobo kumele kucace ukuthi bavikelekile emthethweni ngezimo zesondlo salezo zingane kanye nokuhlukunyezwa yizona uqobo.

Uma ubona ukuthi umsebenzi uyakunqabela ukuba uhlale nengane yakho, yenza izinhlelo ozinikeziwe ngaphansi koMthetho Wezingane 38 wezi-2005 ukuze bakwazi ukuthatha izinqumo ngezingane zakho abantu abadala bese uyondla nyanga zonke.

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