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Ukubalukela komfula iNile emazweni ehlukene
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Ukubalukela komfula iNile emazweni ehlukene

nguSenzo Ngubane

Kuyo yonke imifula ekhona ezwenikazi awukho onedumela uphinde ube nomlando ojulile njengeNile. Lo mfula, uphathwa ngisho eBhayibheleni lapho kuthiwa amanzi awo uNkulunkulu wawaphendula igazi ukuze abe yisishayo e-Egypt ngokwenza izigqila ama-Israel. Uthathwa njengxenye ebalulekile yenkambiso nezinkolo zasemandulo ngezikhathi leli lizwe lisabizwa ngeKemet; kuphinde kuthiwe ngaphandle kwawo nendlela owasetshenziswa ngayo, kwakuyothatha isikhathi ukuba impucuko ye-Egypt yasemandulo idlondlobale. INile kanye nemingenela yayo yeqa imingcele yamazwe ali-11 okubalwa iBurundi, iDemocratic Republic of Congo (DRC), i-Egypt, i-Ethiopia, i-Eritrea, iRwanda, iSouth Sudan, iSudan, iTanzania, ne-Uganda. Lo mfula, osuka maduze nechibikazi iVictoria e-Uganda udabule uze uyoshaya e-Egypt lapho isizalo sawo sisogwini iMeditteranian ungamakhilomitha ayizi-6 650 ngobude. Wonke la mazwe, ikakhulukazi i-Egypt, iSudan, kanye ne-Ethiopia ancike kakhulu emanzini alo mfula njengomthombo wokuziphilisa, ukubhekela imfuyo, abalimi abaso nqenqememi lwawo, kanye nezimboni ezahlukene.

Kula mazwe womathathu, i-Egypt yiyo eyagadla kuqala ngokuthi yakhe idamu elibizwa nge-Aswan, ukuze ikwazi ukogodla nokulondoloza ingxenye yamanzi atholakala kulo mfulo, iphinde ilisebenzisele ukukhiqiza ugesi, nokufakela izakhamuzi. Njengoba lo mfula unqamula emazweni ehlukene, kunezivumelwano zangaphambilini, yimigomo nezinhlelo zokuthi amanzi alo mfula angasetshenziswa kanjani yila mazwe ngaphandle kwezihibe nangendlela ezowagculisa ewonke. Izivumelwano okuvame ukuba ziphathwe ezangowezi-1929 kanye nezowezi-1959. Kokuningi, lezi zivumelwano zadala ukuthi kuwo wonke lamazwe ali-11, i-Egypt, neSudan agculiseka ngokuvikeleka akuthola ekusebenziseni lo mfula; ziphinde zinike i-Egypt amandla okwala (veto powers) ukuthi kube nezakhiwo ezifana namadamu kanye nezinye ezingadala ukuthi kunciphe amanzi angena ngaphakathi ezweni. Amanzi avame ukwentuleka kulesi sifundazwe, ngakho amazwe anjenge-Egypt, okuthiwa isebenzisa inani elingama-85% amanzi alo mfula, ahlezi ‘ehlomele’ ukuvikela izidingo zawo.

Yilezi zivumelwano zangaphambilini kanye nezinhlelo ebezikhona zokusetshenziswa kwalo mfula, esezidale kube khona ukukhombana ngeminwe phakathi kwe-Ethiopia, iSudan ne- Egypt. Umsuka wokuklwebana phakathi kwala mazwe kwaba yisinqumo se-Ethiopia sangonyaka wezi-2011 sokwakha unguzanguza yedamu elibizwa ngeRenaissance, okuzothi mhlazane liphothulwa ngonyaka ozayo (2020) kube ngelikhulu kunawo wonke ezwenikazi. Ngokwelase-Ethiopia, inhloso yokwakha leli damu kwabe kungukuqinisekisa ukuthi leli lizwe linenani elanele lamanzi eliwadingayo, liphinde lilisebenzisele ukukhiqiza ugesi okuyisidingo esikhulu ezweni kanye nesifundazwe. UHulumeni wase-Ethiopia wakubeka kwacaca ukuthi awuyishayi ndiva eyezivumelwano ezenziwa ngezikhathi zangaphambilini ngenkathi amanye amazwe engakakhululeki. I-Egypt, ayikhaleli kakhulu ukwakhiwa kwedamu kepha ilwa nesikhathi esanqunywa yi-Ethiopia sokuligcwalisa emveni kokuba selakhiwe. Inhloso ye-Ethiopia ukuthi leli damu ligcwaliswe ngamanzi eNile ngeminyaka eyisi-6 kepha i-Egypt yakhala yase inxusa ukuthi akuthathwe iminyaka eli-10.

I-Egypt yesaba ukuthi lesi sikhathi esinqunywe yi-Ethiopia sizosheshe siphazamisa ukugeleza kwamanzi eNile okuzobeka izidingo zayo engcupheni ibe ingakazihleli kahle ukuthi izomisa kanjani uma amanzi ewatholayo esencipha. Ezinye zezidingo ze-Egypt esokuthi amanzi angenela echibikazi iNasser angaphazamiseki ngoba awumthombo wedamu i-Aswan okuyilo elingumgogodla emkhiqizweni kagesi ezweni. I-Ethiopia nayo ngokunjalo iyaweswela ugesi; leli damu lilindeleke ukuba likhiqize amamegawatts ayizi-6 000 ka gesi, okuyinto ezovala igebe elikhulu ezweni, nelizosimamisa izimboni. Izingxoxo zokuthola isisombululo phakathi kwala mazwe amabili (kanye neSudan), sezithathe iminyaka ecishe ibe mine, kepha ayikho efuna ukugoba uphondo. Okuchaza ukuthi, i-Ethiopia isaqhubeka nezinhlelo zokuqeda ukwakha leli damu, futhi lisashaya phansi ngonyawo ukuthi lizoligcwalisa ngale minyaka elaliyihlelile. Ngakolwayo uhlangothi, i-Egpyt isazama ukubambelela ezivumelwaneni zakudala, kepha akusenjengakuqala ngoba ambalwa amazwe ayesekayo e-Afrika. Isibonelo, amazwe angomakhelwane anjenge udan, iSouth Sudan, iDjibouti azibona ezohlomula ngogesi ozokhiqizwa yileli damu, nokuyisidingo esikhulu kuwona, ngakho awazibandakanyi nemizamo yokuphazamisa i-Ethiopia ukwenzeni ekufi sayo.

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Noma lezi zingxoxo zingakabi nasiphetho, futhi zihamba ziba nezihibe, akuthakaselwe ukuthi la mazwe asasibona isidingo sokuthi kuqhutshekwe nokubonisana. Lokhu kunika ithemba lokuthi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ikhambi elizogculisa bonke abaphathekayo lizotholakala. Kepha, okumele kugxekwe yisiphakamiso nesinqumo eseza ne-Egypt sokumema i-United States of America (USA) ukuba libe ngumxazululi kulezi zingxoxo. Ingenaphi i-USA kwezase- Afrika? Noma ngabe kuyavunywa ukuthi ingenelele, yini eyaziyo ngodaba olufana nalolu ngoba leli lizwe alabeli mifula namazwe amaningi? Yebo sikhona isimo ngeyamanzi phakathi kwe-USA neCanada, kodwa angesefaniswe nalesi esibhekene nala mazwe amathathu ase-Afrika. Ukube la mazwe amathathu, ikakhulukazi i-Egypt ayebona kulungile ukuba nomxazululi, okungenani ayengacela amanye amazwe e-Afrika ake ayihamba le ndlela. Isibonelo, isifundazwe seningizimu ne-Afrika sinamazwe aseke ayihamba le ndlela yokuzama ukwakha ubudlelwane obungcono la kukhona imifula edabula imingcele, afana neNamibia, iNingizimu Africa, i-Zimbabwe, ne-Angola.

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