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I-AU ithi mayihlome ihlasele eMali
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I-AU ithi mayihlome ihlasele eMali

nguSenzo Ngubane

Sekuphele iminyaka eyevile kweyisi-8 amazwe ayingxenye yesifundazwe iSahel emaphakathi ne-Afrika anjengeMali, iNiger, iMauritania, iChad kanye namanye ebhekene nesankhahlo sezimpi, ubulelesi, ukushushumbiswa kwezidakamizwa kanye nabantu nokusabalala kwezikhali kepha ezingekho ezandleni zabavikeli bombuso. Kuwo wonke la mazwe yiMali neNiger okusalokhu kubonakala kuyiwo athwele kanzima futhi ehlulekayo ukuqeda lezi zinkinga esizibaliwe. Lezi zingqinamba la mazwe abhekene nazo zaqala ngokunyenya mhla kuvuka amaqembu ehlukene ayethi akhalazela ukungaphathwa kahle ngoHulumeni ngakho ayelwela ubulungiswa kanye nentuthuko emazweni abazinze kuwo nalapho beyizakhamuzi.

Isibonelo, eMali izimpi zombango zaqubuka zase zibhebhetheka ekuqaleni kowezi-2012 lapho amaqembu ehlukene ezifundeni eziseNyakatho yezwe okufana neNational Movement for the Liberation of Azawa (MNLA) athi ayelwela ukwakha izwe elizimele ngoba uHulumeni ozinze eNhlokodolobha iBamako eseNingizimu yezwe akayishayi mkhuba eyokuthuthukisa nokubhekela izidingo zezakhamuzi ezizinze emanhla nezwe. Loku kuqubuka kwezikhalo zeMNLA kwakapakela kumazwe angomakhelwane afana neNiger nayo eyazithola isinezifunda ezingenakho ukuthula. Mhlazane lezi zinxushunxushu ziqala kula mazwe amabili i-Afrika yalibeka ngembaba elokuthi umsuka wakho konke lokhu yileli hlazo lokuthi amazwe aseNyakatho eholwa yiNorth Atlantic Treaty Alliance (NATO) akha itulo lokubulala uGhadafi azi kamhlophe ukuthi labo okuthiwa balelwa inkululeko eLibya kwakungebona abaholi ongabathemba, lokhu ngokokuqala.

Okwesibili, iLibya ngaphansi kukaGhadaffi kwakaziwa ukuthi ihlome iphelele ngezikhali zohlobo oluphambili, nokwakusatshwa ukuthi akumele zibe sezandleni zikanoma ubani. Akupholanga maseko ebulewe uGhadafi kwaqala kwavela imibiko yokuthi lezi zikhali obekwaziwa ukuthi unazo azisabonwa, ngapha kusolwa ukuthi zebiwe, ngakolunye uhlangothi kwabakhona abathi cha, zazivele zingekho. Eyokothi zazingekho kwakuyimbundane ngoba kwakaziwa kahle ukuthi phakathi kwalabo ababeyingxenye yokuqumba uGhadafi kwakukhona ontamolukhuni abanezinhloso eziphambene nokubona kunokuthula emazweni athize ezwenikazi. Ukuqubuka kwezimpi kula mazwe, ikakhulukazi eMali kwaphelezelwa yimizamo eminingi yokudala ukubuyisana phakathi kukaHulumeni kanye namaqembu ahlomile anjngeMNLA.

Kwabanjwa izingxoxo, kwaba nezivumelwano kepha konke lokho akulethanga ukuthula eMali. Kunalokhu, izwe lisaqhekeke phakathi, nalapho uHulumeni nezinhlaka zawo utholakala kugcine enkabeni yezwe, kuthi ukusuka kuyo kubhekwe eNyakatho izwe libuswa yizeleli, ontamo iqinile neziqilamikhuba eziphethe izakhamuzi ngesihluku esinyantisa igazi. Kukhulunywa nje, babalelwa kwabevile ema-500 abantu ababuluwa ngesihluku ezigamekweni ezahlukene eMali nyakenye, kanti inani labafi esifundazweni sonkana ngawo odlule libalelwa ezi-4 000. Yiloku kwehluleka kokudala uxolo nokubuyisana okwenza i-United Nations (UN), kuMbasa 2013 isungule iUnited Nations Multinational Integrated Stabilization Mission In Mali (MINUSMA) okuyithimba lamasotsha abuya emazweni ehlukene. I-MINUSMSA yajutshwa ukuba ibambisane noHulumeni waseMali ukwakha ukuthula ezweni.

Abalelwa ezinkulungwaneni ezili-15 amasotsha aqhamuka kumazwe evile ema-22 ayingxenye yeMINUSMA. Kepha kusukela mhlazane yasungulwa i-MINUSMA ayibonakali isikwazile ukufeza lokho eyayithunywe kona. Iminyaka neminyaka, ayanda amanani ezigameko lapho izinkambu zayo zihlaselwa abaukeli mbuso, amasotsha ayo ebulawa, izikhali nezinye zezimpahla zebiwa yizo lezelelisi. Kukhulunywa nje abalelwa kuma-191 amasotsha ayingxenye yeMINUSMA asabulawa eMali kusukela mhlazane yasungulwa. Lesimo sokuhlaselwa nokubulawa kwezithenjwa ezingamosotsha kukhalisa izakhamuzi ezigcina sezizibuza ukuthi uma laba bebulawa bona bangobani? Lokhu yingqikithi yesinqumo seNgqungquthela ye-African Union (AU) ebibanjwe ngenyanga edlule lapho iphakamise ukuthi i-UN mayiguqule amandla eMINUSMA ukuze ikwazi ukuhlasela la maqembu nabaholi bawo abalokhu bedala uthuthuva kuleli lizwe ikakhulukazi ezifundeni esiseNyakatho. Kuze kube manje iMINUSMA yayinikwe amandla okuqapha, ubunhloli, ukuzivikela uma ihlaselwa nokweseka amasotsha kaHulumeni waseMali ukuze akwazi ukuvikela izakhamuzi. Kodwa, yayingagunyazwanga ukuthi ihlasele lapho isola khona ukuthi kunobulelesi nalapho ontamolukhuni bezigcwanekela khona.

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Emveni kokuba i-AU yenze lesiphakamiso, sekuvele imibono eyahlukene enjengokuthi i ukunika iMINUSMA leligunya angeke kudale ukuthula kepha kungabhebhethekisa isimo. Kunalokho, khona abathi kumele uHulumeni wase Mali wesekwe kwimizamo yawo yokubamba izingxoxo nabavukelimbuso nontamolukhuni. Imibono efana nalena yesekwa nanguMengameli waseMali uMnu u-Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta nocashunwe ngabamaphephandaba ngeledlule ethi “Kumele kwandiswe amathuba okuthi kuxhunyanwe nabavukeli mbuso abakhona ukuze kutholakale ikhambi”. Loku kuphambana kwemibono ngokumele kwenzeke futhi kwenziwe eMali ukuze kuliwe nezinxhushunxhushu kuza nemibuzo eyahlukene: Yini eyenza kucatshangwe ukuthi labo ntamolukhuni bazovuma ukuza esigcwani sezingxoxo, baphinde basibone isidingo sokuthelelana amanzi noHulumeni? Yini abazoyizuza kulezi zingxoxo abangayizuzi njengamanje? Izelelise ezithumba abantu, ezishushumbisa izidakamiswa zona zizobekwaphi kulezingxoxo? Abadayisi abashushumbisa izikhali bona kothiwani ngabo? Yini ezobenza ukuthi badedele ‘umnotho’ osusimeme nenzuzo abayitholayo eMali nesifundazwe iSahel ngenxa yalezi zimpi esezithathe iminyaka? Yini engaxoxwa nontamolukhuni abathi bafuna ukuphemba izwe labo? Kusiza ngani ukuthi kuxoxiswane nabo uma imizamo yangaphambili yezingxoxo ingaphethanga ngezithelo ezazilindelekile? Yini esidala ukuthi imibono ethi akuxoxiswane ishehe ivele kungakapholi maseko i-AU iphakamise elokuthi ayihlome ihlasele? Lena ngenye yemibuzo edinga izimpendelo ngaphambi kokuba kuvunyelwane nalabo abathi ake kumiwe ekunikeni iMINUSMA igunya lokuthi ihlasele.

Mona kubalulekile ukugqugquzela nokukholelwa kweyokubuyisana nezingxoxo, kepha kufika isikhathi lapho iqiniso lingeke libalekelwe. Kulena yaseMali kanye neSahel, iqiniso lithi iminyaka esiphelile isimo singalungi, isidale ukuthi lesi sifundazwe sibe yisizinda sabantu nezigameko ezingeke zinqotshwe ngomlomo kuphela. Kukhulunywa nje, ngesonto eledlule emveni kwesiphakamiso se-AU, kubulawe amasotsha eMINUSMA amahlanu okukhombisa indelelo yalezi zigcwelegcwele. Uma kunje mhlasimbe ukuze kudaleke ukuthula, ayididiyilwe bese iyaphakwa!

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