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Umbikosimo ngabesifazane ubonisa lukhulu
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Umbikosimo ngabesifazane ubonisa lukhulu

nguMfo waKwaNomajalimane

Ububha, ukuswelakala kwemisebenzi kanye nokungalingani kuseyiva elihlabe lephukela kwabesifazane kulel

NGENYANGA edlule iNingizimu Afrika ibungaze imisebenzi yabesifazane emakhaya kanye nasemphakathini. Selokhu leli lakhululeka ngonyaka we-1994 inyanga kaNcwaba isetshenziswa njengesikhathi esihle sokulandelela izinhlelo zokuthuthukiswa, ukuhlunyeleliswa kanye nokufundiswa kwabantu besifazane emkhakheni ehlukahlukene. Lokhu kungena khaxa emkhankasweni kahulumeni wakuleli wokuqhakambisa abesifazane nabo ababeyibambe ishisa ngezikhathi zombangazwe.

Ngokokuqala ngqa eminyakeni engama-21 elakuleli lathola inkululeko, mhla ziyisi-9 kuNcwaba uhulumeni wakuleli wethule uMbiko NgeSimo SabeSifazane eNingizimu Afrika (Report on Status of Women in South Africa). Ethula umbiko uMengameli uJacob Zuma uthe: “Umbiko uveza izingxenye lapho kube khona nenqubekela phambili ekuqinisekiseni ukubandakanyeka kwabesifazane kwezomnotho.” Khona lapho uMengameli uphawule ngeva elingakabanguleki nathe limandla kakhulu kwabesifazane, okuwububha, ukuswelakala kwemisebenzi kanye nokungalingani.

Ucwaningo lwakamuva ngesimo sabesifazane lukhomba ukuthi ukungalingani phakathi kwabo nabesilisa kunomthelela omkhulu ekuqhubezeni ububha. Nakuba singaziwa ncimishi isibalo sabantu besifazane abaphila ngaphansi kobubha, emhlabeni wonke lesi isibalo sabo silinganiselwa kumaphesenti angama-70. Isizathu salokhu ngumlando nenkolelo yokuthi abesifazane kumele benze imisebenzi yasekhaya kuphela engaholeli. Lokhu kuba nomthelela omubi ikakhulukazi emakhaya angenabo abantu besilisa okuyibo abakhula becijelwe ukondla.

Abesifazane nokho sebeyaqala ukubonakala emkhakheni ehlukahlukene, bengabafundi futhi bengabasebenzi. Ukuqhutshezwa kwezinhlelo zokuthuthukisa abesifazane eNingizimu Afrika kungalima indima enkulu ekusiphuleni ubhubha kuleli. Ngokuzibandakanya kwezemfundo, ezamabhizinisi kanye neminye imikhakha eqinisa umnotho wakuleli imbokodo isendleleni yokuphuma enkingeni yobubha.

Namhlanje abesifazane kuleli abayizakhamuzi babalelwa kumaphesenti angama-51, okuyizigidi ezingama-27. Kulaba balelwa ezigidini eziyisishiyagalolunye abasebenzayo. Nakuba siphezulu isibalo sabesilisa abasebenzayo ucwaningo luveza ukuthi abesifazane abasebenzayo bafunde kakhulu kunabantu besilisa. Bangamaphesenti ayi-7.1 abesifazane abanamadegree, bese kuthi abangamaphesenti ayi-12.7 banamadiploma noma izitifiketi zemfundo ephakeme. Ohlangothini lwabesilisa bangama phesenti ayi-5.8 kuphela abanamadegree bese kuba ngamaphesenti ayi-9.8 kuphela abanamadiploma kanye nezitifiketi. Kusukela ngonyaka wezi-2010 kuya kowezi-2015 isibalo sabesifazane abaphothule iziqu zemfundo phakeme sinyuke ngamaphesenti ayi-7.5. Iminyaka yabesifazane abasebenzayo nayo iyaqhubeka nokukhula. Bangamaphesenti angama-30 abesifazane abasebenzayo abaneminyaka ebalelwa kuma-45. Ucwaningo luqhuba luveze ukuthi abesifazane nakuba benza amaphesenti angama-43 abantu abasebenzayo kuleli basagcwele kakhulu emazingeni emisebenzi eholela phansi. Amaphesenti angama-50 abantu besifazane abasebenzayo bahola ngaphansi kumarandi ayizi-2 500 ngenyanga.

Kwezomthetho iNingizimu Afrika isiyenze okuningi ukuqinisekisa uguquko enkundleni ebilawulwa kakhulu abantu besilisa. Ngonyaka we-1994, babe babili kuphela abahluleli besifazane kuleli futhi kungabamhlophe. Manje sebebalwa kuma-61 abesifazaneabangabahluleli kuleli, kanti kulawa abangama-48 bamnyama.

Ephalamende abesifazane basuke kumaphesenti ali-2.7 ngaphambi konyaka we-1994, bahlala kumaphesenti angama-41. KuKhabhinethi abesifazane bangamaphesenti angama-43, bese kuthi abangamaPhini oNgqongqoshe bona bahlezi kumaphesenti angama-46. Uguquko seluqalile ukubonakala nasezingeni lohulumeni baseKhaya lapho abasifazane abesemkhandlwini yohulumeni bezifundazwe sebebalelwa kumaphesenti angama-38.

Eminyangweni kahulumeni babalelwa kumaphesenenti angama-40 abesifazane abasezinkhundleni zobuholi. Nakuba lesi sibalo siqhubeka sibangcono minyaka yonke ngenxa yemigomo ebekiwe kuhulumeni, basathwele kanzima abesifazane ezimbonini ezizimele. Umbiko we-Employment Equity ngonyaka wezi-2014 uveza ukuthi bangamaphesenti angama-32 kuphela abesifazane abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ezinkampanini ezizimele.

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“Kungaba kuhle ukubona sikhuphuka isibalo sabesifazane abasezigungwini zabaqondisi ezinkampanini ezizimele eNingizimu Afrika. I-Employment Equity Commision iveza ukuthi nakuba sekuzanywe yonke imizamo kusaqhubeka ukubandlululwa kwabesifazane ezindaweni zomsebenzi,” kusho uZuma.

Le nkinga isaqhubeka emhlabeni wonke. KuMasingana nonyaka, bangama-24 kuphela abesifazane ababehlezi ezicongweni zokuholwa amazwe noma uhulumeni emazweni ahlukahlukene emhlabeni. Ezinkampanini ezingama-500 ezihamba phambili emhlabeni bangamapheseni angama-4.6 kuphela abesifazane abayizikhulu kulezi zinkampani. Kubantu abanezigidigidi zemali emhlabeni, amabhiliyone, ababalelwa kuma-1826, bangama-197 kuphela abesifazane.

Kuningi osekwenziwe ukuqinisekisa ukukhula kwendima edlalwa abesifazane emphakathini. Abesifazane sebeyingxenye yenkundla yezomthetho, ezemfundo, ukuphathwa kwamabhizinisi kanye nezomnotho wonkana.

Ukuguqula lesi simo abesifazane bayaqeqeshwa emazingeni aphansi ezemfundo. Ngokombiko weCommission on Higher Education (CHE) abesifazane baphumelela kakhulu kunabaselisa ezifundweni zabo. Ngonyaka wezi-2007 amaphesenti angama-59 abantu abaphothula iziqu zemfundo ephakeme ngabantu besifazane. Lokhu kuyinkomba yempumelelo yezinhlelo ezibekiwe zokuqinisekisa ukuthi abesifazane eNingizimu Afrika nabo bayaqhubeka ngokuzicija ngakwezemfundo.

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